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Full text of "The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam"

THE DEMOCRATIC 
REPUBLIC 

OF 

VIET NAM 




I 



/ 



THE 

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 

OF 

VIET NAM 




President HO CHI MINH 



THE 
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 

OF 

VIET NAM 




HANOI 
FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE 

1960 



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CONTENTS 

Pages 
VIET NAM ON THE PACIFIC COAST 9 

A GLANCE THROUGH THE HISTORY OF A HEROIC 
PEOPLE 15 

I. Viet Nam before the XlXth century ... 15 

II. Struggle against aggressive imperialism. The 1945 
August Revolution and the founding of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam 20 

III. The struggle to maintain national independence and 

people's power 26 

IV. The Geneva Conference : The restoration of peace in 

Indo-China, a new turning point of Viet Nam's 
revolution .■ 38 

ADVANCED POLITICAL AND SOCIAL REGIME 43 

I. The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is a people's 

state 43 

II. Organization of the state of the Democratic Republic 

of Viet Nam 45 

III. Equality among all the nationalities and equality 

between men and women 52 

IV. National wealth in people's hands 56 

V. Rights and duties of citizens 59 

V V\ VI. Firm political unity of the Democratic Republic of 

Viet Nam 61 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT . 67 

I. Steps forward 67 

II. Agriculture 72 






7 



III. Industry , 79 

IV. Development of Capital Construction $4 

V. Strengthening and development of communications 

and transport 86 

VI. Trade 37 

VII. Finance and currency 90 

PEOPLES LIFE EVER BETTER 93 

I. Food, clothing and lodging 94 

II. Income and wages 97 

III. Social welfare 99 

IV. Prices reduced, people's purchasing power increased. 101 
V. People's health 102 

THE NEW CULTURE 107 

I. Education s _. 107 

II. The cultural life of the people 115 

III. Science 1 19 

IV. Literature and Art 122 

V. Physical culture and sports 126 

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE REUNIFICATION OF THE 
FATHERLAND, AN URGENT TASK OF THE VIET- 
NAMESE PEOPLE 127 

I. Viet Nam is one nation 127 

II. The resolute and patient struggle for national unity 
of the people and the Government of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam 129 

HI. The Southern people's struggle against the attempts 
of the imperialists and Diem, aggressors and 
traitors, to permanently partition the Vietnamese 
territory and to sabotage peace and unity in 
Viet Nam 134 

FOR FRIENDSHIP AMONG NATIONS, FOR WORLD 
PEACE 143 

I. Place of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam in the 

world arena 143 

II. In the great family of world socialism 146 

III. Support for the national independence of the 

oppressed countries 151 

IV. Resolute in safeguarding peace 155 



Besides the bamboo there are immense forests of 
precious woods — Lim, Sen, Trac, Tram, Tau, etc. 
Mountains, forests and highlands occupy four-fifths 
of the area, chiefly in Bac Bo (north Viet Nam) and 
Trung Bo (central Viet Nam). The highest mountains 
are the Fansipan (3,142 metres) in North-west and 
the Pia Ouac in North-east of Bac Bo. The beautiful 
Ba Vi and Tarn Dao mountains are two very good 
summer centres. Truong Son, as shows its name, is 
a long mountain range. Beside these chains of 
mountains and between the forests, various kinds of 
industrial crops are grown. Among these are tea and 
coffee. Therefore, Viet Nam is not only a country of 
plains and of paddy but also a country of mountains 
and forests with their precious forest products. 

In speaking of Viet Nam, one calls to mind the 
mineral resources, the ores and metals of good quality 
and of abundant reserve. Anthracite which is in great 
quantity in the Hong Gai, Cam Pha and Uong Bi coal- 
mines is among the best in the world. Various metals 
such as iron, tin, lead, zinc, manganese, chrome, 
tungsten, amiantus, etc. have been and are being 
exploited. Viet Nam has huge reserve of phosphate, 
lime, and kaolin. Geologists in the Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam are discovering more mineral 
resources. With its wealth in minerals and metals, 
the socialist industrialization of Viet Nam is capable 
of a rapid avance. 

The Red River and the Thai Binh River in Bac Bo, 
and the Mekong and the Dong Nai River in Nam Bo 
are not only the source of supply of water to rice- 
plants but also good lines of communication. These 
rivers will become in the near future sources of 
abundant hydro-electric power. In north Viet Nam, 
the Hanoi-Yunnan, Hanoi-Haiphong, Hanoi-Lang 
Son, Hanoi-Thanh Hoa and Hanoi-Thai Nguyen 
railway lines have contributed greatly to the economic 
restoration and development, and cultural develop- 

to 



ment. Asphalted or macadamized roads from Hanoi 
to the provinces, link province to province, district 
to district, town to countryside. 

The Vietnamese coast is 2,500 kilometres long and 
has many ports : Haiphong, Cua Ong and Ben Thuy 
in the North, Da Nang, Cam Ranh and Saigon in the 
South. Fish is in an inexhaustible supply and a great 
source of profit for Viet Nam's economy. 

Together with these advantageous natural condi- 
tions, Viet Nam is also situated in the tropical zone 
whose climate is favourable to vegetation which is 
always green and of rapid growth. Many kinds of 
delicious fruits abound : banana, orange, grape-fruit, 
longane, coco-nut, etc. Somebody has rightly said : 
Viet Nam is a country of greenness and freshness with 
multi-coloured flowers blooming all the year round. 

North Viet Nam has four distinct seasons. Warm 
spring, the temperature being from 15° to 22°C. when 
rice-plants are beautifully green and trees bud under 
the light spring showers. In summer, the average 
temperature is as high as 30°, the heat helping the 
ears of rice to ripen quickly. The heavy summer rain 
which formerly often caused floods and water-logging, 
will, in the future, with irrigation networks, be con- 
served to enable the peasants to make good prepa- 
rations for autumn crops. Autumn is a very poetic 
season, the freshest season of the year. The tempera- 
ture in winter is between five and 15°C, when flowers 
still bloom and trees still sprout. It is the harvest- 
time of autumn rice and ploughing-time for the next 
summer crop. 



The population of our country is about 30 million. 
According to the census of March 1960 north Viet 
Nam has 15,916,000 habitants. 

11 



Viet Nam is a multi-national State. The majority 
are the Viets living in the plains from North to South. 
In the Viet Bac mountainous regions, on the Chinese 
and Laotian borders, and along the Truong Son 
mountain range, there are different nationalitites : 
Thai, Meo, Tho, Nung, Man and Muong. In south 
Viet Nam, the minority peoples are Gia Rai, E De, 
Khmer and Cham. They number about three million. 
It is only under the leadership of the Party of the 
working class that all nationalities in Viet Nam are 
united in a monolithic bloc and act together to win 
back independence for the Fatherland. The building 
of socialism in the North as well as the liberation of 
the South are the common cause of all nationalities 
in Viet Nam. 

There is no State religion in Viet Nam. About two 
million people are Catholics, the same number being 
believers in the Buddhist, Cao Dai and Hoa Hao 
religions. The remainder of the population follows no 
religion. 

Viet Nam is divided into 65 provinces, the chief 
town of each being relatively large. Provinces are 
divided into districts whose chief towns are small. 
North Viet Nam has 27 provinces, two cities and two 
autonomous zones *. Besides there are two special 
zones, the Hong Quang and Vinh Linh zones. 

Hanoi, the Capital of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam, is an ancient city on the Red River, with 
many historical points of interest and beautiful land- 
scapes. The Literature Temple, One Pillar Pagoda and 
the Ngoc Son Pagoda were built in the 11th century 



* Lang Son, Cao Bang, Bac Can, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, 
Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Phu Tho, Son La, Lai Chau, Vinh 
Phuc, Bac Ninh, Bac Giang, Hai Ninh, Hai Duong, Kien An, 
Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Hoa Binh, Ha Dong, Son Tay, Ha Nam, 
Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang 
Binh, Hong Quang, Vinh Linh, Haiphong, Hanoi. 

12 




Sai Son (Son Tay province) 



Hong Gai 




""GfljJP " 













s&m< * ** ^ Hi 



August 19, 1945 meeting in Hanoi 



f 1 4 




President 
HO CHI MINH 
reading the 
Proclamation 
of Indepen- 
dence at Ba 
Dinh Square 
(September 

2, 1945) 



and are in good repair. The Restored Sword Lake lies 
in the very centre of the City. The Western Lake and 
the True Bach Lake, on the West of the Capital are 
scenic spots attracting the people of the city and 
foreign tourists, especially in the hot afternoons. With 
a population above 630,000 inhabitants the majority 
being factory-workers, public employees and peasants 
on the outskirts, Hanoi, like the other towns of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, is becoming a 
production centre. Formerly it was the principal 
market for imperialist goods and a place where 
debauchery prevailed. Now, Hanoi is the political, 
economic, and cultural centre of the whole country. 



13 



A GLANCE THROUGH THE HISTORY 
OF A HEROIC PEOPLE 

I. VIET NAM BEFORE THE XlXth CENTURY 

Viet Nam has an ancient history. Old books often 
speak of more than 4,000 years of culture of the 
people. 

What is the origin of the Vietnamese people ? This 
is a problem along with others in the history of Viet 
Nam which still requires study. Without taking into 
account the legendary period of the Van Lang king- 
dom with the kings named Hung Vuong, the Au Lac 
kingdom, founded in 258 B.C., can be said to be the 
first in the history of Viet Nam. Half a century after 
its setting up, Au Lac was occupied by Trieu Da, a 
vassal of the Chin feudal dynasty in China. It was 
annexed to the territory of Trieu Da (now Kwantung 
province, China), and these two states were called 
Nam Viet. In 111 B. C. it was conquered by the Han 
feudal empire. The tract of land from today's Bac Bo 
(north Viet Nam) to Nghe An was divided into three 
zones and put under the domination of the various 
Chinese feudal dynasties : the Tung Wu, Tsin, Sui and 
Tang dynasties successively dominated our country. 



Over one thousand years of slavery is over one thous- 
and years of struggle for national independence by 
the Vietnamese people. The insurrections of the Trung 
Sisters (40-43), Lady Trieu (248), Ly Bon (544-602), 
Mai Thuc Loan (722) and Phung Hung (791) which 
mobilized the broad mass of people to oppose the 
domination of the aggressors, are well known. During 
more than 10 centuries, the struggle between the 
foreign feudalists attempting to assimilate the Viet- 
namese people and the Vietnamese people united to 
win back their sovereignty continued without cessation. 
There were victorious uprisings in the whole country 
for a relatively long period such as those of the Trung 
Sisters and Ly Bon, and successful insurrections for 
a short period such as those of Lady Trieu, Mai Thuc 
Loan and Phung Hung. The Vietnamese people's will 
for independence in different generations and the 
confidence of the Vietnamese in their country were 
strong indeed. The name Van Xuan (Eternal Spring) 
given by Ly Bon to the country after its liberation 
(544-602), showed this strong and firm confidence. 

The year 939 ended foreign feudal domination of 
more than one thousand years. Recalling this year, 
one remembers National Liberator Ngo Quyen, victor 
on the historic Bach Dang River, who opened a long 
period of independence for the country. 

The characteristic of Vietnamese history from the 
10th to the 16th century was that the people cease- 
lessly struggled against the foreign aggressors to 
safeguard independence, and at the same time built 
up their country. During that period, the self-defence 
wars against the Sung dynasty's troops (12th 
century), the Mongolian aggressors (13th century), 
the invaders from the Champa Kingdom (14th 
century) and the Ming dynasty's troops never ceased. 
The determination to defend national independence 
was clearly manifested in the defeat of the Mongolian 
troops three times, and the ten-year insurrection 
against the Ming troops. The names of the national 

16 



heroes Tran Quoc Toan and Le Loi who led the people 
to these victories remain for ever in the hearts of the 
Vietnamese people. Despite these wars, the Vietnam- 
ese people never ceased to build their country. New 
regions were reclaimed, dykes built to prevent floods, 
and irrigation networks enlarged to develop commu- 
nication, but chiefly to supply water to the rice-fields. 
Handicrafts made rapid progress. Production of silk, 
cotton, salt, farm implements, leaf hats, and weapons 
was developed. Home trade and foreign trade extend- 
ed. The enlarged internal trade contributed to the 
consolidation of the centralized feudal State at that 
time. Boats from China, Indonesia, Thailand came to 
Viet Nam. Monetary economy developed. By the end 
of the 14th and early in the 15th century, paper 
currency was in circulation in Viet Nam. The great 
cities, chiefly Thang Long or Dong Do (now Hanoi) 
were enlarged. Then Tay Do (now Thanh Hoa) 
together with various ports such as Van Don (now 
Quang Yen) and Dien Chau (Nghe An) were founded. 
It was in the period of independence that Vietnamese 
culture developed further. Confucianism, Buddhism 
and Lao Tseu doctrine from China and India had an 
influence on it. However, Viet Nam had its own 
national culture whose base was more firmly fixed 
after independence was won back in the 10th century. 
During 600 years, many worthy cultural works came 
into existence. Literary, historical, legal, military 
strategic and tactical works marked the development 
of Viet Nam at that time. Han Thuyen, Ly Thuong 
Kiet, Tran Quoc Tuan, Tran Quang Khai, Le Van Huu, 
Ho Quy Ly and Nguyen Trai were well known because 
they rendered great services to culture during that 
period. The creation of the vernacular script became 
the basis for cultural creation in the Vietnamese lan- 
guage, since that time. At present, we still retain 
ancient architectural treasures : The One-Pillar Pago- 
da in Hanoi and many pagodas in Bac Ninh and other 
provinces. 

17 



From the 10th to the 16th century, under the deve- 
loped feudal regime, Viet Nam made progress, but 
from the 16th to the first half of the 19th century the 
whole feudal system in Viet Nam fell into grave crisis. 
For more than three centuries internal wars broke out, 
with the peasant movement in Viet Nam protracted 
and developing. From that time the feudal class in 
Viet Nam hindered the progress of Vietnamese society. 
During this period, contact with Western capitalism 
influenced the development of Vietnamese society. 

One recalls the feudal wars between the Mac and 
Trinh families (16th century), called by the ancient 
historians the civil war between the Northern and 
Southern Kingdoms, and between the Nguyen and 
Trinh families (18th century). The present Vietnam- 
ese territory (from Lang Son to Ca Mau) has existed 
since the 18th century. The partition created by the 
feudalists made the people miserable, especially the 
peasants. Peasant movements erupted fiercely. The 
insurrections led by Nguyen Danh Phuong, Nguyen 
Cu, Nguyen Tuyen, Hoang Cong Chat and Nguyen 
Huu Cau breaking out in the North during the first 
half of the 18th century weakened the Trinh feudalists. 
In the second half of the century there took place the. 
Tay Son peasant movement headed by the three 
brothers Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Hue and Nguyen Lu. 
It had not only to face the two feudal clans which 
dominated the country, Nguyen and Trinh, but also 
the intervention of the Siamese Kingdom's troops. 
Imbued with class hatred and very high national 
spirit, the peasants defeated both the enemy at home 
and the foreign aggressors. Independent Viet Nam 
began to create a base for complete national unifica- 
tion. These victories once more showed the determi- 
nation of the Vietnamese people to struggle for 
sovereignty and national unification. 

While the peasant movement rose strongly to attack 
the rotten feudal regime, economy and culture got a 
fresh impetus. Development within Vietnamese society 

Iffl 



together with contact with foreign capitalism created 
the first capitalist features. Industry and trade 
extended. Bronze, silver and other metals were 
exploited in more than 100 mines employing tens of 
thousands of miners. Ship-yard and arms manufac- 
ture were developed. Handicrafts producing textiles, 
leaf hats, and salt, developed ; others, such as paper- 
making and printing came into existence. Communi- 
cations and transport in the country and with foreign 
countries made progress. British, French, Dutch, 
Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese came to Viet Nam, 
chiefly to Faifoo (Quang Nam). Economic centres 
having a national character began to appear: Kinh Ky 
(i.e. Hanoi), Pho Hien (in Hung Yen), Quang Nam 
(central Viet Nam), Bien Hoa and Saigon (south Viet 
Nam). The ownership of land also underwent a 
change. The policy, 'equal distribution of land' under 
the reign of Le (15th century) aimed at wiping out 
the regime of fief. Though it only brought much land 
to the landlord class, it also created conditions for 
the development of the regime of private ownership 
of land. 

From the 16th century to early in the 19th century, 
Vietnamese society was reflected in well-known 
literary works, chiefly those written in vernacular 
script. Nguyen Binh Khiem and Le Quy Don were 
well-known writers in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 
the 18th century and early 19th century we had great 
poets — Ho Xuan Huong, the author of many satirical 
poems, courageously opposing feudal morale ; Doan 
Thi Diem, the author of the undying Lament of the 
Soldier's wife who with her clear style, spoke of ardent 
desire for peace and hatred of war; Nguyen Gia Thieu, 
the author of Lament of an Odalisque laid bare the 
cruelties of the feudal regime towards man ; and the 
most outstanding of all, Nguyen Du, the author of 
Kieu Ballad, a masterpiece which brought the Viet- 
namese language to a very high peak, written with 
consummate skill, full of lofty humanitarian senti- 

19 



rrients of the Vietnamese people, perseveringly and 
resolutely struggling against injustices of the old 
feudal society. It was in this period that the historical 
works of Ngo Si Lien, Ngo Thoi Si, and especially 
Phan Huy Chu, the author of Annals of Charters 
through the Dynasties, methodically recorded the 
process of development of the Vietnamese nation. 

In the crisis of the feudal regime, the Vietnamese 
people matured now to be threatened by a cruel 
and dangerous foreign enemy, aggressive Western 
capitalism, French colonialism. 



II. STRUGGLE AGAINST AGGRESSIVE 

IMPERIALISM. THE 1945 AUGUST REVOLUTION 

AND THE FOUNDING OF THE DEMOCRATIC 

REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 

From the end of the 18th century, the French capi- 
talists held the Nguyen suzerain lords in hand, and 
found every means to interfere in Viet Nam's internal 
affairs. The Nguyen feudal Court, born of the close 
collusion between the most reactionary and rotten 
feudalists and the French enemy to defeat the Tay 
Son peasant movement, cravenly handed over the 
sovereignty of Viet Nam to France, In 1858 the 
French colonialists staged repeated provocations in 
Da Nang, occupied Nam Bo (south Viet Nam) in 1862, 
and in 1884 achieved the occupation of the country 
when the Nguyen Court surrendered to the French 
colonialists. 

Henceforward Vietnamese society became a colo- 
nial and semi-feudal society. The colonial and feudal 
yokes weighed heavily upon our people. At the top 
was the ruling machine including governors-general, 
governors and senior residents, assisted by the feudal 
Court ; in the provinces the French residents and 
military commanders backed by the Vietnamese heads 
of province. Below was a whole network of heads of 

20 



district, notables and secret agents. The unified Viet 
Nam was then divided in three Ky (parts) : north, 
central and south Viet Nam, which were considered 
as three different countries. To go from one Ky to 
another the Vietnamese had to have passports as 
travelling to foreign lands. There was no freedom of 
any kind, association, trade unions, or press. Viet 
Nam was turned into a dark prison under the yoke 
of the aggressors and traitors. 

Under French rule, industry did not develop in 
Viet Nam. There was only the industry for exploiting 
of raw materials. However attention was paid to 
another kind of industry, that of distilling alcohol in 
order to poison the 'natives'. Viet Nam, like the whole 
of Trench Indo-China' was an exclusive market of 
imperialist French, with French capitalists' trading 
companies established in Viet Nam. The Bank of 
Indo-China was a great leech sucking the blood of the 
Vietnamese people in every field : industry, trade, 
communication, transport and currency. In such a 
situation the Vietnamese bourgeoisie could take shape 
but could not develop. French exploitation helped 
create the proletariat and its development to a certain 
extent. 

However, throughout 80 years of domination by 
French imperialism, Viet Nam remained basically an 
agricultural country. More than 90 per cent of the 
population were peasants enduring all kinds of 
sufferings. The planters did as they liked ; the French 
officials and the kings and mandarins had complete 
power over the peasants. Their land was seized ; land 
rent and other feudal tribute pressed heavily upon 
them. Loans and mortgages at high rates of interest 
issued by the Land Bank, the Agricultural Bank and 
by landlords and rich peasants made the life of the 
peasant extremely miserable and uncertain. 

Culture did not fare any better. There were more 
prisons than schools and more brothels and opium 
dens than hospitals. Illiteracy was practically univer- 

21 



sal, the few literates being allowed to read only books 
and papers praising the 'great services' of France, 
the 'Great mother-country'. This on the territory of 
Viet Nam whose very name they tried to wipe out. 

In 1940, Indo-China which had been exclusively in 
the hands of the French imperialists, was now shared 
with the Japanese fascists. Thus Viet Nam as well as 
Cambodia and Laos had an additional exploiter. 
Another noose tightened around the necks of the 
Indochinese people especially the Vietnamese. 

A people having a thousand-year tradition of 
opposing foreign aggression could not tolerate any 
slave yoke. Eighty years of domination by French 
colonialists and later by Japanese fascists have been 
eighty years of struggle for the liberation of the 
Fatherland. As soon as the aggressor troops landed in 
Viet Nam, they met with the heroic resistance of the 
Vietnamese people. At that time the Resistance war 
was localized in a few regions, not yet having national 
character. No sooner had the French colonialists 
stabilized their position, than they had to face a better 
organized movement. Early in the 20th century, 
facing the danger of being overcome, the national 
bourgeoisie which had just taken shape, and progress- 
ive personalities, organized the movement against 
the aggressors. The putsches led by patriot Phan Boi 
Chau and the anti-feudal movement of a reformist 
character headed by Phan Chu Trinh, marked the 
undaunted spirit of a people having national 
sovereignty at heart. But the national bourgeoisie 
was too weak, unable to lead the people's struggle to 
victory. After World War I, the Vietnamese people 
gradually found the way to liberate themselves. At 
that time Vietnamese society became more and more 
differentiated under the increased exploitation of the 
French colonialists. The Vietnamese working class 
doubled in number. The peasantry went bankrupt 
before the ever-increasing exploitation of imperialists 
and feudalists. The already weak national bourgeoisie 

22 



grew weaker, and forsook the revolutionary banner 
to become reformists stooping to beg for little reforms. 
One part of the petty-bourgeoisie in the towns tried 
to raise the bourgeois banner to gather the masses of 
people around the Viet Nam Nationalist Party. 
However after the failure of the 1930 Yen Bai putsch 
the disintegration of the Viet Nam Nationalist Party 
began. 

The only class able to lead the revolution is the 
working class. After 1917, it developed and drew the 
lessons from the great Russian October Revolution. 
Marxism-Leninism unknown in Viet Nam, thence- 
forward spread to the most progressive patriots and 
the working class. Comrade Nguyen Ai Quoc (Presi- 
dent Ho Chi Minh), the first revolutionary Vietnam- 
ese imbued with Marxism-Leninism, was preparing 
for the founding of the Party of the working class. 
In 1925, a revolutionary organization with communist 
tendencies was set up, the Viet Nam Young Revolu- 
tionary Comrades Association. The workers' move- 
ment was progressing favorably. Patriotism still 
smouldered in the various classes and strata of the 
people. 

Early in 1930, the Viet Nam Communist Party (the 
Indochinese Communist Party afterwards) was set 
up. The Vietnamese revolution moved to a new stage. 
The Party's political programme, together with the 
national democratic revolutionary line of advance to 
socialism, gathered the broad masses of people to the 
revolutionary ranks. The slogans 'Anti-Imperialist 
revolution' and 'Agrarian revolution' agitated the 
greatest number of people among the population, that 
is the peasantry. This created the firm base for the 
National United Front whose foundation was advocat- 
ed immediately after the working class had seized the 
leadership of the revolution. From 1930 the Vietnam- 
ese revolution became a real mass revolution daily 
growing firmer and stronger. The struggle to liberate 
the people and set up the people's democratic regime 

23 



in Viet Nam went through many stages. The 1930-1931 
stage was marked by the setting up of the Nghe An 
and Ha Tinh Soviets. The movement temporarily 
subsided before the atrocious repression of the impe- 
rialists and feudalists (1931-1935). It arose strongly 
and broadly in the period of the Democratic Front 
(1936-1939), advancing to the stage of preparing the 
insurrection to overthrow the French and Japanese 
rule. 

In 1939-1945, the struggle of the Vietnamese people 
was very fierce. Armed insurrections broke out in 1940 
and 1941 ( Bac Son, Nam Ky and Do Luong). The 
bloody repression by the French and Japanese 
aggressors could not discourage nor daunt the people. 
The Vietnamese people came together in the Viet Minh 
Front (set up in May 1941) led by the Indochinese 
Communist Party, headed t>y Comrade Ho Chi Minh. 
Over two million people, one tenth of the Vietnamese 
population, died of hunger deliberately brought on by 
the French colonialists and Japanese fascists. This 
not only failed to diminish the people's patriotism, 
but increased further the hatred for the invaders. The 
national salvation organizations of the various social 
classes, of all ages and sexes extended more and 
more. The Liberation Army was organized together 
with self-defence units. Base zones were founded and 
developed. The world situation was more and more 
advantageous to the Vietnamese revolution. The 
Soviet Army annihilated the German fascists, the 
Chinese People's Army liberated more land, the 
fascist axis was broken. This situation found an echo 
in Viet Nam and pushed the Vietnamese revolution 
forward. When the Japanese overthrew the French 
(March 9, 1945), the immediate concrete enemy of the 
Vietnamese people was the Japanese fascists. The 
Viet Minh Front led by the Indochinese Communist 
Party rapidly and timely called upon the entire peonle 

24 , 



to prepare for the general insurrection to seize power 
in the whole country. In June 1945, the liberated zone 
with revolutionary people's power comprised the six 
provinces of Viet Bac. Provincial and communal Libe- 
ration Committees were set up parallel with the enemy 
administration in the regions still occupied by the 
Japanese fascists. In August 1945, the Soviet Army 
defeated the Japanese fascists army making the major 
contribution to the Japanese capitulation. In Viet 
Nam, the Indochinese Communist Party at once 
ordered the general insurrection. On August 19, 1945, 
Hanoi was liberated. Then the whole country was 
freed. Revolutionary power was founded everywhere 
in Viet Nam. On September 2, 1945, President Ho Chi 
Minh, on behalf of the Provisional Government of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, declared : 

«A people that has courageously opposed 
French domination for more than eighty years, 
a people that has fought side by side with the 
Allies against the fascists during these last 
years, such a people must be free and 
independent ! 

« For these reasons, we members of the 
Provisional Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam solemnly declare to the 
world that Viet Nam has the right to be free 
and independent and in fact it is so already. 
The entire Vietnamese people are determined 
to mobilize all their physical and mental 
strength, to sacrifice their lives and property 
in order to safeguard their independence and 
liberty. » 

The August Revolution was successful. It was the 
first time in the history of colonial and semi-colonial 
peoples that the working class has victoriously led 
the revolution against imperialism and set up the 
people's power in the whole country. 

25 



III. THE STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN NATIONAL 
INDEPENDENCE AND PEOPLE'S POWER 

Scarcely had the Vietnamese people seized power 
in the whole country, than many difficulties confronted 
them. On September 23, 1945, the French colonialists, 
backed by the British troops which came to disarm 
the Japanese army, launched an aggressive war. 
Meanwhile the troops of the Chiang Kai-shek reac- 
tionary clique entered north Viet Nam, under the 
pretext of disarming the Japanese, but in reality to 
kill the new-born Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. 
Backed by the Chiang Kai-shek troops the Vietnamese 
traitors, fostered by the imperialists, endeavoured to 
sabotage. In the meantime, famine, brought about by 
the French colonialists and Japanese fascists still 
raged. 

In this situation, President Ho Chi Minh pointed to 
the need to annihilate the three enemies : foreign 
aggression, famine and ignorance. 

In south Viet Nam the self-defence war against the 
French enemy backed by British imperialism broke 
out. The southern people, imbued with a very high 
patriotism and heroic spirit, used rudimentary 
weapons of all kinds (bamboo sticks, knives, spears, 
scimitars, etc.) to fight the aggressors. 

While leading the self-defence Resistance war 
against French aggression in the South, the Govern- 
ment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam had to 
cope with the Chiang Kai-shek troops in the North, 
and at the same time, had to build the new regime in 
the political, economic and cultural fields. 

On January 6, 1946, for the first time in Viet Nam, 
general election took place to elect the people's 
representatives to the National Assembly. Women, 
men, majority and minority nationalities, every citizen 
participated in the ballot. The Viet Minh representa- 
tives, the Communists and the true patriotic persona- 

26 



lities won an overwhelming majority, more than 95 
per cent of votes being cast for them. In south Viet 
Nam even in the very centre of Saigon-Cholon city 
where the fighting was very fierce more than 90 per 
cent went to the polls to fulfil their citizen's task of 
voting. This was a very great success for the Viet- 
namese people, a victory over the imperialists and 
reactionaries who were plotting to sabotage the 
independence of the newly liberated country. 

The Vietnamese people had their own National 
Assembly and public offices throughout the country. 
In each province and commune, the people elected 
the provincial and communal People's Councils. The 
first Session of the National Assembly held on March 
2, 1946 appointed the Government headed by Presi- 
dent Ho Chi Minh. The provincial and communal 
People's Councils appointed their local Administrative 
Committees. In the South where there were the Com- 
mittees of Resistance, the People's State machine was 
stabilized, and the struggle to consolidate the new 
regime stepped up. 

Simultaneously with the struggle against aggress- 
ion, the Vietnamese people attacked famine and 
ignorance. The land policy of the Viet Minh Front was 
implemented, the colonialists' and traitorous land- 
lords'land confiscated and temporarily given to the 
peasants. Communal lands were equitably re-distri- 
buted, land rent decreased by 25 per cent, loan interest 
decreased and the debtor permitted to postpone 
payment in case of hardship. The slogan 'Not an inch 
of waste land' was implemented everywhere and, 
while waiting for the new crop, organizations to 
relieve famine were set up. The struggle against 
famine scored great successes. The offensive against 
ignorance was carried out vigorously. The enthusiastic 
atmosphere of a people who had just broken their 
chains of slavery spread over the economic and 

27 



cultural spheres. The ardent love for peace of the 
Vietnamese people was manifested in the enthusiastic 
work of national restoration. 

To end the bloody struggle between the French 
troops and the Vietnamese people in south Viet Nam, 
a Preliminary Agreement was signed by the Govern- 
ment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam and the 
French Government on March, 6, 1946. According to 
this agreement, the two sides ceased fire. The Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam was recognized by the 
French government as a free country having its own 
Government, National Assembly, army and finance. 
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam allowed 15,000 French soldiers to replace the 
Chiang Kai-shek troops, but within a period of five 
years they must withdraw from Viet Nam. 

To strengthen and enlarge the National United 
Front, defend independence and build the country, on 
May 29, 1946, the Viet Nam National United League 
was set up. It had the aim to unite all patriotic parties, 
and patriots without party, without distinction of 
class, religion, political tendencies, nationalities, in 
order to build an independent, united, democratic and 
prosperous Viet Nam. At that time the Viet Minh was 
still a Front, but it was an organization within the 
Viet Nam National United League. The March 6 
Agreement was scarcely signed and implemented 
when the French found means to break it. The Fontai- 
nebleau Conference was held on September 1946 to 
solve the important problems between Viet Nam and 
France. But as the French were unwilling to hold 
discussions a stop had to be put to it. To save peace, 
President Ho Chi Minh signed the September 14, 1946 
Modus Vivendi with the French Government. Accord- 
ing to it, the two sides would stop all military actions, 
and the other problems would be discussed after- 
wards. But the French colonialists violated the Modus 
Vivendi immediately after its signing. The successive 
French attacks upon the positions of the Vietnamese 

28 



army in the South increased. The people in south 
Viet Nam were obliged to fight in self-defence. In 
north Viet Nam, French troops increased provocations 
at Bac Ninh, Bac Giang and Lang Son. French 
General Morliere occupied Haiphong ; in Hanoi 
French troops massacred Vietnamese people, and 
occupied many public offices of the Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam. In addition, they blatantly sent an 
ultimatum demanding the disarming of the Vietnam- 
ese army. No more concessions were possible, the 
Vietnamese people were obliged to take up arms. The 
nation-wide war broke out on December 19, 1946. 



* 



In the morning of December 20, 1946, the Vietnam- 
ese people heard the appeal made by beloved 
President Ho Chi Minh : 

« Dear compatriots throughout the country, 
« As we desire peace we made concessions. 
Yet the more we made concessions, the more 
the French colonialists demanded, because 
they are resolved to invade our country once 
again. But we would rather sacrifice all than 
lose our country. We are determined not to be 
enslaved. 

« Compatriots ! Rise up ! 

« Men and women, old and young, if they 
are Vietnamese citizens, must stand up to 
fight the French colonialists to save the Fa- 
therland. Those who have rifles, use rifles ; 
those who have swords use swords ; those 
who have no swords use spades, hoes or 
sticks. Everyone must endeavour to oppose 
the colonialists and save the country ». 

At first the forces of the two parties were obviously 
unequal. French colonialists had modern weapons and 
soldiers inured to war, besides being directly support- 

29 



ed by American imperialists. The Vietnamese people 
had only rudimentary weapons, their army newly 
built and not yet seasoned. 

But the Vietnamese people had what the French 
colonialists could never have. It was their just cause, 
their determination to wage the Resistance War, and 
the support of the peace-loving people of the world. 
From the first days, the Vietnamese people were well 
aware that the Resistance War would be fraught with 
hardships and be protracted but it would certainly end 
in victory. 

The war broke out in December 1946. Three months 
later, the French troops were still pinned down to 
their original position. The battle unfolded very 
fiercely in Hanoi and many other places, in each 
street and house. From March 1947, the colonialist 
troops succeeded in occupying a number of towns and 
then began to attack other regions. Their aircraft, 
cannon, and tanks bombed, shelled and murdered. But 
wherever their troops went, they were fought and 
decimated by the Vietnamese guerilla forces. 

The enemy's tactics were to « strike quickly and win 
quickly. » But they were frustrated by the long-term 
war of Resistance waged by the Vietnamese people. 
In Autumn 1947, they launched a military campaign 
to attack Viet Bac (Northernmost part of Viet Nam) 
base, attempting to wipe out the leading organs of 
the Resistance. Their plan failed and they were thrown 
into greater confusion. 

After a year of nation-wide Resistance, 

« notwithstanding difficulties and hardships, 
the Vietnamese people are more united, more 
enthusiastic, and more resolved to conduct the 
Resistance War to final victory. The more 
experience they gain and the more trained 
they become, the more courageous the Viet- 
namese fighters are. As the Government of 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam has 
gained greater prestige, it is all the more 

30 



supported because it is a Government resolved 
to fight the enemy, a Government advocating 
nation-wide unity, sharing hardships as well 
as happiness with the people ; in short it is a 
people's Government. Apart from a few ruined 
and deserted towns, the countryside remains 
in our hands. * 
What about the enemy ? 

« They have lost 20,000 French soldiers, 
dead and wounded, spent more than 3,000 
million piastres, occupied some towns already 
reduced to ashes, bought up a gang of traitors 
to serve as puppets, but these scoundrels are 
spat upon by the whole people. All their plan- 
tations, coal mines, busines firms, and 
factories are in ruin. The French Government 
and their Commanders-in-Chief here were 
reshuffled many times. » ** 

The Viet Bac battle was the last milestone of the 
stage of contention. From 1948 onwards, Viet Nam's 
Resistance shifted to the second stage, that of 
equilibrium. 



During the stage of equilibrium, the fighting was 
hard and fierce. Unable to carry out their tactics of 
« striking quickly and winning quickly », the French 
colonialists resorted to other schemes. They consoli- 
dated the places they had occupied and thence 
attempted to expand their sphere like silkworms 
eating mulberry leaves. They set up a national puppet 
Government (prior to this, there was only the puppet 
Government of the South), and actively brought into 
effect their plot of « using the Vietnamese to rule the 



* Appeals by President Ho Chi Minh, edited by Su That 
Publishing House, Hanoi, Volume I, page 228. 

** Ibid., page 227. 

3! 



Vietnamese, and the war to feed war », pressganging, 
plundering the people's property, scattering spies to 
the rear of the Resistance to sabotage ; they blockaded 
the Resistance in the economic field, labelled the 
puppets with independence in order to hoodwink the 
people. With regard to the Resistance, many difficul- 
ties which had been anticipated became realities. They 
had to be overcome. The significance of the all-out 
and nation-wide Resistance War gradually penetrated 
the people's minds. The question was not only to fight 
the enemy on the military front, but also on the 
economic and cultural fronts. At the beginning of 
1948, a drive of patriotic competition was in full swing 
throughout the country heralding a new stage. Inde- 
pendent companies advanced deep into the enemy 
rear, and, in coordination with the local guerillas, 
destroyed his posts, annihilated the puppet adminis- 
tration and the traitors, not allowing them to stabilize 
their rule. Propaganda work among the enemy ranks 
was intensified. While competing in the production of 
foodstuff, the guerilleros also competed in killing the 
enemy when he came. Cultural work began to take a 
new direction, aimed at the central task of driving out 
the invaders. The movement against illiteracy went 
parallel with that of annihilating the invaders. In 
1948, on the main front as well as on others, various 
military campaigns and battles ended with the 
enemy's failure: the war threw the French imperialists 
into great confusion. Within three years, the French 
Government fell ten times. In Indo-China, enemy 
Commanders-in-Chief were reshuffled continually. 

From 1949 the Resistance war in Viet Nam shifted 
to a new step in the stage of equilibrium. The move- 
ment waged by the French people against the dirty 
war in Indo-China, spread deep and wide, the support 
of the people of the world, first and foremost the 
Soviet people and the Asian-African peoples, gave 
added strength to the Vietnamese. The victory of the 

32 




Hanoi heroically starting the nation-wide 
Resistance (December 19, 1946) 



Crossing the Muong Thanh Bridge to annihilate the last 
enemy position at Dien Bien Phu (May 7, 1954) 




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Chinese people, particularly the founding of the 
People's Republic of China, was a great encourage- 
ment for the Vietnamese Army and people. 

In face of their heavy failure, the French colonialists 
asked the international reactionaries to intensify their 
intervention further. From 1950, the U. S. imperialists, 
on the one hand, started an aggressive war in Korea, 
and on the other directly and brazenly interfered in 
the war in Indo-China. 

« The American imperialists gave arms and 
munition to their stooges to massacre the 
Indochinese people ; their goods impeded the 
development of Indochinese small industry; 
their depraved literature debauched the youth 
in the temporarily occupied regions. They 
resorted to the policy of corruption, hoodwink 
and division. They tried to win over a number 
of dishonest people to turn them into their 
henchmen to attempt to conquer our country. » 
Therefore, 

« in order to wrest back independence, the 
Indochinese must be resolute in smashing the 
French colonialists who are our enemy n° 1. 
At the same time we must fight against the 
American interventionists ». * 
The more complicated the war in Indo-China 
became, the greater the trials for the Vietnamese 
people. Early in 1950, the Vietnamese rejoiced at a 
new success : The People's Republic of China, the 
Soviet Union and other socialist countries established 
diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam. This political success gave an impetus to 
the movement to satisfactorily carry out the imme- 
diate revolutionary tasks. These were to foster the 
main forces of the Resistance, which were the 
peasants, strictly apply the Government's decree 
concerning the reduction of land rent and interest, 



* President Ho Chi Minn's reply to pressmen, July 25, 1950. 
3 DR 33 



provisionally distribute the land of absent landlords 
to the peasants, stabilize national finance, and conti- 
nue to wipe out illiteracy. The satisfactory fulfilment 
of these tasks further stimulated the enthusiasm of 
the Army which had made great progress in the ideo- 
logical field, in technology and military tactics. This 
progress was shown in large-scale mobile warfare 
which brought victory to the Vietnamese Resistance 
on the Viet Nam-China Border front in 1950 Autumn- 
Winter and elsewhere. Our boundaries were then 
linked to the immense and powerful socialist camp. 
1951 was the year in which great progress was made 
in the Vietnamese Resistance. It was a year in which 
the stage of equilibrium was conducted victoriously 
in all fields. 

The first noteworthy success was the founding of 
the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party. The National Congress 
of the Party convened in February, 1951, re-affirmed 
Viet Nam's revolutionary line, and the Party's most 
urgent task which was to lead the Resistance to 
victory. Afterwards, the National Congress was held 
for the fusion of the Viet Minh Front and Lien Viet 
League into the Lien Viet (Viet Nam National United 
Front). From then on, the unity of the entire people 
became ever firmer. 

After the Party's Congress, Viet Nam's Resistance 
was stepped up, the Ha-Nam-Ninh military campaign 
(provinces of Ha Nam, Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh) 
and the Hoa Binh campaign (Hoa Binh province) 
being two big campaigns in 1951 which dealt the 
enemy new heavy blows. 

The more the French colonialists were defeated, the 
more the American imperialists intensified their inter- 
vention in giving them assistance, and the fiercer the 
war in Indo-China became. The American imperialists 
schemed to discard the French colonialists who, in the 
protracted war, gradually became America's mercen- 

34 



ary soldiers. The Resistance had by then more 
favourable conditions, but it also met with new 
difficulties. 

A movement of patriotic competition was launched, 
aimed at annihilating the enemy, side by side with 
increasing production. Great victories in Hoa Binh 
(February, 1952) and in Tay Bac (the West-Northern- 
most part of Viet Nam) (October, 1952) were won. 

The more defeats the enemy suffered, the more 
desperate he became in finding every possible means 
to cope with the situation. His mad actions clearly 
showed his confusion and loss of initiative. With 
regard to Viet Nam's Resistance, the year 1953 was 
marked with new changes. We smashed the large- 
scale mopping-up operations of the enemy and anni- 
hilated a great deal of his manpower. Our support 
from abroad, particularly from socialist countries, was 
on the increase. The Korean people and Army and the 
Chinese volunteers defeated the U. S. invaders and 
their underlings. The anti-war movement waged by 
the French people became ever stronger. In October 
1953, the 3rd Congress of the World Federation of 
Trade Unions, on behalf of 88 million workers 
declared December 19th « The day of unity with the 
heroic Vietnamese people for the cessation of the 
aggressive war in Viet Nam ». All these things greatly 
encouraged the Vietnamese people in their Resistance. 
Filled with enthusiasm by the success of the world 
camp of peace and democracy, the Vietnamese people 
did their best to fulfil their task which was on the one 
hand to further enhance the Resistance and on the 
other to carry out land reform. 

Since its foundation, the Party of the Vietnamese 
working class put forth the slogan «land to the tiller». 
The requisition and temporary distribution to 
peasants, of the land belonging to colonialists and 
traitorous landlords was the first step to implement 
the policy on land worked out by the Party and 
Government. In 1953, as People's power was obvi- 

35 



ously consolidated after eight years of Resistance, the 
free zone expanded and stabilized, the Resistance 
required a further fostering of its main forces which 
were the peasants. The Viet Nam Lao Dong Party 
mobilized the masses to radically carry out land rent 
reduction and afterwards land reform. In November 
1953, the National Assembly approved the law 
on land reform, and this anti-feudal task was carried 
out parallel with the fight against imperialism. 
The decision taken by the Viet Nam Lao Dong 
Party, the National Assembly and Government filled 
the entire people with elation and gave more 
confidence and enthusiasm to the fighters both in 
the front and at the rear. Everywhere, the struggle 
for national defence progressed at a higher rate. 
The fight against mopping-up operations on all 
fronts throughout the country scored great successes. 
In the South, there was the bitter defeat of the enemy 
at the Plain of Reeds, while in the Centre, an offensive 
of the Vietnamese Army in Quang Nam province 
gained total victory. But the most noteworthy activity 
took place on the Northern front. The landing of 
para-troops on Lang Son according to the Navarre 
plan failed completely. Successive defeats suffered by 
the enemy forced him to withdraw from Na San 
strong point (North-Western part of North Viet Nam) 
which was a strategic base that he attempted to use 
as a springboard to occupy the whole North-West. 



The Americans, after their failure in Korea, plotted 
to drag out and extend the aggressive war in Indo- 
China. At the behest of the Americans, the French 
General Navarre began to implement a new plan. On 
November 20, 1953, enemy para-troops occupied Dien 
Bien Phu and made of it an entrenched camp. The 
Navarre plan at Dien Bien Phu was a large-scale 

36 



strategic plan aimed at annihilating the greater part 
of our main forces within 18 months and occupying 
the whole of our territory. With American assistance, 
Navarre concentrated the greater part of his troops 
and arms at the Dien Bien Phu entrenched position. 
Early in 1954, Dien Bien Phu became the main theatre 
of the war in Indo-China. It was a front deciding the 
success or failure of the invaders. 

Immediately after the enemy troops landed at Dien 
Bien Phu, they were encircled by the Vietnamese 
Army. Enemy reinforcements came unceasingly. The 
encirclement was tightened. The enemy withdrew 
forces from other areas to throw into the Dien Bien 
Phu front. Availing themselves of this opportunity 
the People's Army stormed other enemy strategic 
points. In January 1954, 259 enemy posts and watch- 
towers were smashed in the South. Kontum province 
(in the Centre) having an area of 14,000 Sq.Km. 
and a population of 300,000 was liberated... In this 
way, on all fronts the Vietnamese Army kept the 
initiative in launching offensives against the enemy, 
coordinating their actions with the main front at Dien 
Bien Phu. The first phase of the offensive against 
Dien Bien Phu started on March 13th. The enemy 
troops were ordered by their commanders to cling to 
their position. 

The second phase began on March 30th. Picked 
enemy troops continuously landed on Dien Bien Phu 
by planes. The battle became extremely fierce. The 
encirclement narrowed down gradually. On all fronts, 
our Army stormed enemy posts, surprised enemy 
troops on lines of communication, entered enemy air- 
fields by surprise and destroyed their planes. 

The desperate enemy attempted to save the situa- 
tion. Enemy commanders sent more forces to Dien 
Bien Phu. The last trial came. 

Early in May, the third phase began. The American 
imperialists ordered the French colonialists to cling 

37 



to their entrenched position at Dien Bien Phu. After 
seven days of offensive, on the night of May 7, 1954, 
at 10 o'clock all remaining troops of the enemy at 
Dien Bien Phu surrendered. General de Castries gave 
himself up to the heroic People's Army. Dien Bien 
Phu was liberated. The Dien Bien Phu victory is the 
greatest victory of the Vietnamese Resistance War. 
It was enthusiastically welcomed by the Vietnamese 
people. People of oppressed nations regarded it as 
their own victory. The people throughout the world 
were elated because it was a victory for peace and 
democrary. 



IV. THE GENEVA CONFERENCE : 

THE RESTORATION OF PEACE IN INDO-CHINA, 

A NEW TURNING POINT OF VIET NAM'S 

REVOLUTION 

The Vietnamese are a peace-loving people. They 
had taken up arms to defend themselves, because 
they could not do otherwise. However, during the 
Resistance the Vietnamese people took every oppor- 
tunity to make proposals to end the fighting. 

In November 1953, in answering a Swedish journal- 
ist, President Ho Chi Minh said : 

« The war in Viet Nam has been provoked 
by the French Government. The Vietnamese 
people took up arms heroically to struggle 
during these last eight years against the in- 
vaders, to safeguard their independence and 
freedom to live in peace. Now if the French 
colonialist carry on their aggressive war, the 
Vietnamese people are resolved to continue 
their patriotic war to final victory. But if the 

38 



French Government, having drawn lessons 
from the war in these last few years, wants 
to come to a ceasefire in Viet Nam through 
negotiation and to settle the question of Viet 
Nam by peaceful means, then the Vietnamese 
people and Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam are ready to 
welcome it. » * 

This desire for peace of a nation upholding a just 
cause was sympathized with and supported by the 
people of the world. In February 1954, in accordance 
with the Soviet Union's proposals, the four Foreign 
Ministers of the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, 
and the United States met at Berlin to discuss the 
question of cessation of hostilities in Indo-China and 
the question of peace in Korea. 

Though reduced to this situation the bellicose ele- 
ments did not intend to renounce aggression. On the 
one hand, they agreed to gather at the Conference 
table, but on the other, they sought to sabotage the 
Conference. They hoped to win time, to actively re- 
inforce the French troops in Indo-China, in an 
attempt to recover from their heavy losses. But the 
situation did not favour the aggressors. The Dien 
Bien Phu battle ended with the ignominious failure 
of agressors on May 7, 1954. On all other fronts in 
Indo-China, the Vietnamese People's Army scored 
many new successes. The movement waged by the 
French people for peace in Indo-China spread deeper 
and wider than ever. In such a situation, on May 8, 
1954 the Geneva Conference opened to discuss the 
cessation of hostilities in Indo-China. In the Confe- 
rence, Pham Van Dong, Head of the delegation of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam expounded the 
Vietnamese people's standpoint : peace, indepen- 
dence, unity and democracy. The bellicose clique con- 



Appeals by President Ho Chi Mint). 

39 



tinued to sabotage the Conference, thus, dragging it 
out. News of the successes scored by the Vietnamese 
Army came constantly. At the same time the French 
people had overthrown the Laniel-Bidault Govern- 
ment which was substituted by that of Mendes 
France. The Conference shifted in a favourable direc- 
tion. On July 20, 1954, the Agreement on the cessation 
of hostilities in Viet Nam was signed and, next day, 
July 21, 1954, the Final Declaration of the Conference 
was published. 

The agreement on the cessation of hostilities 
stipulated that the armies of both sides must cease 
fire and within a period of 300 days must be com- 
pletely regrouped in two specified regrouping zones. 
The Vietnamese People's Army stationed from the 
17th parallel Northward and the Army of the French 
Union from the 17th parallel Southward. 

In this way there came into being a demarcation 
line at the 17th parallel but only of a temporary 
character. 

« It should not in any way be interpreted as consti- 
tuting a political or territorial boundary. » (Article 6 
of the Final Declaration) 

The cessation of hostilities was the initial measure 
paving the way to the solution of the Indo-China 
question. With regard to Viet Nam in particular, it is 
clearly pointed out in Article 7 of the Final 
Declaration : 

«The Conference declares that so far as 
Viet Nam is concerned, the settlement of poli- 
tical problems effected on the basis of respect 
for the principles of independence, unity and 
territorial integrity shall permit the Vietnam- 
ese people to enjoy the fundamental freedoms 
guaranteed by democratic institutions esta- 
blished as a result of free general elections 

40 



by secret ballot. In order that sufficient pro- 
gress has been made in the restoration of peace 
and that all the necessary conditions obtained 
for free expression of the national will, 
general elections shall be held in July 1956, 
under the control of an international commis- 
sion composed of the representatives of the 
Member States of the International Super- 
visory Commission referred to in the agree- 
ment on the cessation of hostilites. Consulta- 
tions on this subject shall be held between the 
competent representative authorities of the 
two zones from 20th July 1955 onwards. " 

In Article 10 the Conference 

"takes note of the declaration of the Go- 
vernment of the French Republic to the effeect 
that the French Government is ready to with- 
draw its force from the territory of Cambodia, 
Laos and Viet Nam at the request of the 
Government concerned and within periods 
which shall be fixed by agreement between 
the parties. " 

The Geneva Conference, ending with the signing of 
the Agreements on the cessation of hostilities in Indo- 
China is a great victory for the Vietnamese people 
and the people of other countries in Indo-China, of 
the French people and of the Asian people ; it is a 
great victory for the peace-loving people of the world. 

After the Geneva Conference, one half of Viet Nam 
from the 17th parallel Northward was completely 
liberated. The Vietnamese people and the Government 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam concentrate 
all their efforts to maintain and consolidate peace, 

41 



and thoroughly implement the agreements concluded. 
As is stipulated by the agreements, there should have 
been negociations between the two parties for the 
general election to reunify the country. But owing 
to the American pressure, the French were obliged to 
use one of the U. S. henchmen, Ngo Dinh Diem, to set 
up a puppet government. 

With Ngo Dinh Diem as a lever, the American 
interfere into south Viet Nam more brazenly, and are 
determined to partition Viet Nam, turn the South into 
an American military base to prepare for war in 
Indo-China. 



42 



ADVANCED POLITICAL AND SOCIAL REGIME 

I. THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 
IS A PEOPLE'S STATE 

The 1945 August Revolution is a people's revolution 
mobilizing millions of people from North to South to 
overthrow the colonial and feudal power. In Viet 
Nam's revolutionary history, never before had such 
broad masses of the population participated. Based 
on the worker-peasant alliance and led by the 
working class, the National United Front has taken 
shape and developed rapidly in the process of the 
revolution. The success of the August Revolution is 
the success of the Viet Nam National united Front. 
The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam founded by 
the August Revolution, fully reflected the broad unity 
of the people and nation. This was clearly shown in 
the composition of the National Assembly elected on 
January 6, 1946, which included representatives of the 
entire people from North to South. The first National 
Assembly included representatives of the Viet Minh 
Front, of various strata of population, of the cultural 
and scientific circles, of various religions (Christia- 
nity, Buddhism, Caodaism, etc..) and of national 
minorities. The outstanding sons and daughters of 

43 



the South, the Southernmost part of Central Viet Nam 
and the Western Highlands, through the thick and 
thin of the Resistance War came together with other 
representatives of the whole people. 

During the Resistance War, the Government was 
the concentrated image of the broad unity of the 
entire people who heroically struggled against the 
French colonialists and American interventionists. 

Since the restoration of peace in Indo-China, Viet 
Nam is provisionally divided into two zones. The im- 
mediate task is to build the North along socialist 
lines and at the same time struggle for national 
reunification. In order to carry out these great tasks, 
the broad unity of the people must be further broaden- 
ed and consolidated. Importance is given to the 
worker peasant alliance, but meanwhile more atten- 
tion is also paid to the broad unity of other strata of 
the population in order to carry out the immediate 
revolutionary tasks. The Viet Nam Fatherland Front, 
born in 1955, has advanced national unity a step 
further. In the new historic conditions, the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam fully reflects the broad and firm 
unity of the people. The Government is now striving 
to lead the North along the socialist path, raise the 
people's material and cultural life, as a firm and 
strong base of the struggle, by peaceful means, for 
national reunification. This is the State belonging to 
the whole Vietnamese people. 

The second National Assembly of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam elected on May 8, 1960, is the 
fullest expression of the popular and unified character 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. It includes 
deputies of the southern people, who were elected in 
the 1946 General Elections and still retain their 
mandates. With the new National Assembly, including 
deputies of the South as well as those of the North, 
the Vietnamese people have additional strength to 
work for national reunification, 

44 



During the past fifteen years, in different historic 
conditions, the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam has 
always been a people's democratic State, based on the 
worker-peasant alliance and led by the working class. 

It has been the State of the National United Front, 
that is to say the State belonging to all strata of the 
population, North and South. The State of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam has won great prestige 
throughout the country. For the same reason it is the 
banner rallying all patriotic and progressive forces 
to struggle for a peaceful, unified, independent, demo- 
cratic, prosperous and strong Viet Nam. 



II. ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE OF THE 
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 

The power of the Vietnamese people was affirmed 
in the 1946 Constitution as well as in the 1960 Cons- 
titution of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. The 
1946 Constitution asserted: 

"Viet Nam is a Democratic Republic. All 
power in the country belongs to the entire 
Vietnamese people..." 
Thirteen years later, after achieving historic 
successes, the 1960 Constitution emphasized once 
again the power of the people. 
Article 2 of the 1960 Constitution stipulates : 

'The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, 
established and consolidated as a result of 
victories won by the Vietnamese people in the 
glorious August Revolution and the heroic 
Resistance War, is a people's democratic 
State. ,, 
Article 4 again stresses : 

"All power in the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam belongs to the people...". 

45 



Our people exercise power through their various 
representatives organs: at national level, the National 
Assembly and at other levels, the People's councils. 

In the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, the right 
to vote and stand for election is most democratic. 
There are no restrictions on the right to vote and 
stand for election by condition of education, property 
status, etc... Citizens of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam who have reached the age of eighteen have 
the right to vote, and those who have reached the age 
of twenty-one have the right to stand for election 
whatever their nationality, race, sex, social origin, 
religion, belief, property status, education, occupa- 
tion, or length of residence, except insane persons 
and persons deprived by a court of law. Citizens in the 
Army have similar rights. The general election 
proceeds from the principle of universal, equal, direct 
and secret suffrage. 

The Vietnamese people are highly conscious in 
exercising power. January 6, 1946 is the unforgettable 
day when the first legislature of the National Assem- 
bly of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam was 
elected. Even in the midst of the Resistance war, in 
the South and the Southernmost part of Central Viet 
Nam the heroic citizens of the young Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam held the election with a deep 
democratic consciousness. One still recalls the 
mother and baby killed by enemy bombs at the ballot- 
booth in Khanh Hoa province. It can be said that 
these were votes marked with the blood of the 
patriotic southern citizens. Another noteworthy result 
was that in Saigon, where 90 per cent of electors 
went to the polls. 

On May 8, 1960, the people of north Viet Nam 
enthusiastically held the election to the second 
legislature of the National Assembly. An average of 
97 per cent of the electors went to the poll, and one 
third of the polling centres recorded 100 per cent. In 
this election, all candidates presented by the Father- 

46 



land Front were elected with an overwhelming major- 
ity (on the average they won over 92 per cent of the 
total number of votes). In the second National Assem- 
bly the Deputies include 50 workers, 46 peasants, 65 
intellectuals, 78 heroes, fighters in the Army or model 
workers, 2 national bourgeois, 3 clergymen, 2 buddhist 
Superiors, 56 minority people, 49 women, 40 youths 
from 21 to 30 of age, 20 armymen, 34 southern 
regroupees. 

The second National Assembly includes many 
ordinary labouring people. Miss Nguyen Thi Thu, 23 
of age, a worker, and many other workers were elected 
by the population of the Capital. 

As stipulated in Art. 43 of the Constitution, the 
National Assembly is the highest organ of State 
authority in the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. It 
is the only legislative authority. It exercises the fol- 
lowing functions : 

To enact and amend the Constitution ; 

To enact laws ; 

To supervise the enforcement of the Constitution ; 

To elect the President and Vice-President of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam ; 

To choose the Prime Minister and vice-Premier and 
other component members of the Council of Ministers ; 

To choose the component members of the National 
Defence Council ; 

To elect the President of the Supreme People's 
Court ; 

To elect the Procurator general of the Supreme 
People's Organ of Control ; 

To remove the President and Vice-President of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, the Prime- 



Minister, the vice- 
members of the N 


Premiers and the other 
ational Defence Council, 


component 
the Presi- 

47 



dent of the Supreme People's Court and the Procura- 
tor general of the Supreme People's Organ of 
Control ; 

To decide upon national economic plans ; 

To examine and approve the State budget ; 

To fix taxes ; 

To decide on general amnesties ; 

To decide on questions of war and peace, and to 
exercise other necessary functions as defined by the 
National Assembly. 

The term of office of the National Assembly is four 
years. Deputies to the National Assembly are invio- 
lable. At the same time, in order to ensure the 
people's real democratic rights, so that the people 
have the right to control their deputies, the Constitu- 
tion provides that Deputies to the National Assembly- 
can be removed by their constituents before their term 
of office expires if they show themselves to be unwor- 
thy of the confidence of the people. 

The National Assembly chooses its Standing 
Committee which presides over the activities of the 
Government between the two sessions of the National 
Assembly. 

The National Assembly elects the President of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. The President of 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, in pursuance 
of decisions of the National Assembly or its Standing 
Committee, promulgates laws and decrees and 
performs such other functions as provided for by the 
Constitution. 

Not only has the State machine a democratic 
character at the highest level, but in each region it 
also has the same democratic character. 

"Local People's Councils at all levels are 
the organs of State authority in their 
respectives areas/' 

"People's Councils at all levels are elected 
by the local people and are responsible to 
them." (Articles 80). 

48 




Women of na- 
tional minorities 
voting for the 
Second legisla- 
ture of ihe Na- 
tional Assembly 



Procession of Bui 

Chu caiholics on 

Easter 








Aliolment of land to peasants during land reform 




Ban Tong 

agricultural 

cooperative 

(Muong La 

district, Son 

La province) 

preparing 

for the 

Autumn crop 



The regime of People's Councils was carried out 
throughout Viet Nam after the founding of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. Experience has 
shown that through the People's Councils, the people 
have practically managed the State. Immediately after 
the success of the August 1945 Revolution, the People's 
Councils played an active role in the organization of 
production against famine, in the maintenance of 
security and in the fight against illiteracy. During 
the Resistance war, the People's Councils organized 
and mobilized the people for the war, intensification 
of production and improvement of the living condi- 
tions of the people. Since the restoration of peace the 
People's Councils have highlighted their effectiveness 
in economic rehabilitation and development and cul- 
tural development. At present, the People's Councils 
are carrying out the tasks defined by the Constitution, 
which are to ensure observance and execution of 
State laws in their respective areas ; examine and 
approve local budgets ; maintain public order and 
security in their areas ; protect public property ; pro- 
tect the rights of citizens and safeguard the rights 
of the nationalities in their areas. The term of office 
of the People's Councils of provinces, autonomous 
zones and municipalities directly under the central 
authority is three years. The term of office of the 
People's Councils of districts, cities, towns, villages, 
townlets and wards is two years. The electoral pro- 
cedure for the People's Councils is similar to that for 
the National Assembly. 

The People's Councils also fully reflect the unity of 
our people within the National United Front. The re- 
presentatives making up the People's Councils repre- 
sent all strata of the population in the area. Of 100 
delegates to the Hanoi People's Council there are 29 

4 DR 49 



Workers, 1? peasants, ? handicraftsmen, 6 small 
traders, 16 petty-bourgeois, 5 national bourgeois, 3 
of various religions, 1 of writers and artists. 



In the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, all admi- 
nistrative organs are established democratically. The 
Council of Ministers and the Executive Committees 
at various levels are elected respectively by the 
National Assembly and the People's Councils at 
various levels and responsible to the National Assem- 
bly and the People's Councils at various levels. 

The Council of Ministers is the executive organ of 
the highest organ of State authority ; it is the highest 
administrative organ of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam. It is composed of the Prime Minister, Vice- 
Premiers, Ministers, Heads of State Commissions, 
(Commission for State plans, State Scientific Corn- 
mission, Commission for national minorities, etc.), 
the Director General of the National Bank. 

Like the members of the National Assembly, those 
of the Council of Ministers fully reflect the broad 
unity of the entire people. 

The Council of Ministers centralize the leadership 
of the Ministries and organs of State under the 
authority of the Council of Ministers : it centralizes 
the leadership of the administrative committees at 
all levels ; puts into effect the national economic plans 
and the provisions of the State budget ; controls 
home and foreign trade ; administers affairs concern- 
ing the national minority people... It has the respon- 
sibility to safeguard the interests of the State, to 
maintain public order, to protect the rights and 
interests of citizens, and lead the building of the 
armed forces of the State. 

Local Executive Committees at all levels are the 
executive organs of the local People's Councils, the 

w 



local administrative organs of the State, having the 
responsibility to lead the branches under their autho- 
rity, and the Executive Committees at lower levels. 
The Executive Committee at each level is composed 
of a Chairman, one or more Sub-Chairmen, a secre- 
tary and other members. 



The People's Courts and the People's Organs of 
Control are two important branches of the State 
apparatus. 

The People's Courts are elected by the National 
Assembly and the People's Councils at all levels. 
They are the organs to judge cases of law. The term 
of office of the President of the Supreme People's 
Court is five years. Judicial proceedings in the 
People's Court must be carried out with the partici- 
pation of people's assessors according to law. In 
administrating justice, people's assessors enjoy the 
same powers as judges. The People's Courts are inde- 
pendent, and subject only to law. Cases in the 
People's Courts are heard in public unless otherwise 
provided for by law. 

The right of defence is guaranteed the accused. 

Citizens of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
are equal before law. 

The People's Courts ensure that all citizens of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam belonging to 
national minorities may use their own spoken and 
written languages in court proceedings. 

The Supreme People's Organ of Control of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam controls the obser- 
vance of the law by all organs of State and all 
citizens. 

The People's Organs of Control at all levels work 
under the leadership of their higher control organs 

51 



and the unified leadership of the Supreme People's 
Organ of Control which is elected by the National 

tSSS&PS \ etm °J, fiVe years and is responsible 
to the National Assembly. 

III. EQUALITY AMONG ALL THE 

NATIONALITIES AND EQUALITY 

BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN 

Speaking of the advanced social and political 
regime of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam we 
cannot overlook equal rights among all nationalities 
and equality between men and women. 

fJ2 et N ?r iS 3 . mul , tl - nation aI State and there exists 
between the nationalities firm solidarity. This is one 
of the main political characteristics of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam. 

^ Right from its birth, the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam has upheld the principle of equality among 
cill nationalities as a principle of State life The 
Constitution clearly states : 

« The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is 
a single multi-national State. 

All nationalities living on Vietnamese terri- 
tory are equal in rights and duties. The State 
has the duty to maintain and develop the 
so hdanty between the various nationalities. 
All acts of discrimination against, or oppres- 
sion of any nationality, all actions which 
undermine the unity of the nationalities, are 
strictly prohibited. 

The State strives to help the national mino- 
rities to make rapid progress and tho keep 
pace with the general economic and cultural 
avdance. » (Article 3) 



52 



The principle of equality among all nationalities 
is expressed first and foremost in the participation of 
delegates of the minorities in the highest organ of 
State authority, the National Assembly. 

As the minorities comprise one seventh of the total 
population of north Viet Nam, at the General Elec- 
tions held on May 8, 1960 they were guaranteed one 
seventh of the seats in the National Assembly. In 
various localities, of representatives to the National 
Assembly the delegates of the minorities are in great 
majority (In the Thai-Meo Autonomous zone ten out 
of twelve, Lang Son four out of five, Cao Bang five 
out of six and in Bac Can, all delegates are minority 
people...) 

In absolute respect for the principle of equality 
among the nationalities, the Constitution specifies 
that autonomous zones may be established in areas 
where people of national minorities live in compact 
communities. Such autonomous zones are inalienable 
parts of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. On 
May 7, 1955, the Thai-Meo Autonomous zone was set 
up and on August 19, 1956, the Viet Bac Autonomous 
zone also came into existence. There is representa- 
tion of all minorities on the State organs in autono- 
mous zones {People's Councils and Administrative 
Committees). In the Thai-Meo Autonomous zone, the 
People's Council has 139 delegates of 17 nationalities 
and the Administrative Committee is composed of 
24 members from 11 nationalities. 

The State organs in autonomous zones may, within 
the limits of autonomy prescribed by law, work out 
plans for economic and cultural development suited 
to the local conditions, administer local finance, and 
organize local self-defence and public security forces. 
They may, basing themselves on the political, econo- 
mic and cultural characteristics of the nationalities 
in their respective areas, draw up statutes governing 
the exercise of autonomy and regulations concerning 

53 



particular problems, to be put into effect in their 
areas, after endorsement by the Standing Committee 
of the National Assembly. 

Dialects and scripts of the minorities are especially 
respected. The State helps the minorities which are 
still without written languages to create their own 
scripts and, if necessary to improve those already in 
existence. 

Thanks to the correct implementation of the nation- 
ality policy, the Thai-Meo and Viet-Bac Autonomous 
zones have made very rapid progresses in every 
respect, particularly in economy and culture. The 
first industrial city of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam is under construction in Thai Nguyen, the heart 
of the Viet-Bac Autonomous zone. 



Women's rights are clearly defined in the 
Constitution : 

« Women in the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam enjoy equal rights with men in all 
spheres of political, economic, cultural, social 
and domestic life. 

For equal work, women enjoy equal pay 
with men. The State ensures that women 
workers and office employees have fullpaid 
period of leave before and after child-birth. 

The State protects the mother and child and 
ensures the development of maternity hospi- 
tals, creches and kindergartens. 

The State protects marriage and the 

family. » (Article 24). 

If formerly, under colonial and feudal rule, women's 

place was in the kitchen, at present, under the people's 

democratic regime the State-organs are attracting 

54 



an ever greater number of outstanding women. 
49 women were elected to the Second National Assem- 
bly, 336 to the People's Councils of provinces, muni- 
cipalities and autonomous zones — of these 38 are 
members of the corresponding Administrative Com- 
mittees, and 16,662 to the Commune People's Coun- 
cils — of these 3,944 are members of the Commune 
Administrative Committees. 

In all branches of professional activity especially 
in medicine and education, women are well repre- 
sented. In the 1959-1960 school-year, the educational 
branch included as many as 3,198 women teachers 
at primary and secondary schools, and more than 
30,000 at elementary school and kindergartens. Not 
a few are head-mistresses. Many of them are model 
workers. They are at the same time good mothers and 
outstanding teachers. 

Women have made important contributions on the 
agricultural production front. A great many of them 
are elected Chairmen of co-operatives. They are 
carrying out their tasks with great ability. 

In industry, they play an enormous part, occupying 
one third of the total number of workers. 

Many Labour Heroines and Army Heroines come 
from the masses of ordinary workers and peasants. 
Heroines Mac ThiBuoi, Nguyen Thi Chien, Nguyen 
Thi Nam, Vu Thi Tu, Nguyen Thi Khuong (Muong 
nationality) and Nguyen Thi Tan are spoken of with 
love and admiration far and wide in Viet Nam. 

In the minority areas, women who formely never 
left their villages, spending their whole life besides 
their spinning wheels, are now very busily engaged 
in social activities. 

Under the old regime, women were not only slaves 
in society but also slaves in their families. Nowadays, 
this has been changed radically. Their position in the 
family is recognized by law. The Law of Marriage 

55 



and the Family promulgated on January 13, 1960, is 
of deep revolutionary significance in the social life of 
our country. Article I of this historic law specifies : 

«The State ensures full implementation 
of the free and progressive regime of 
marriage, one wife one husband, equal rights 
between men and women, protection of the 
interests of the mother and child, aimed at 
building up the happy, democratic family in 
which all the members are united, love and 
help each other make progress. » 

In the old days, women used to sing a sad song 
that described their life in the society : 
We're like falling rain-drops 
One falls in the well, one on the fields. 

In the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, women 
are no longer hazardous 'rain-drops'. They have 
become glorious members of the new society whose 
life is closely linked to the steady advance of the 
people's democratic regime. 



IV. NATIONAL WEALTH IN PEOPLE'S HANDS 

In the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, the people 
are the masters both politically and economically. The 
1960 Constitution points out : 

«The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is; 
advancing step by step from people's demo- 
cracy to socialism by developing and trans- 
forming the national economy along socialist 
lines, transforming its backward economy 
into a socialist economy with modern industry 
and agriculture, and an advanced science and 
technologie. » (Article 9) 
In the period of transition to socialism there are in 
Viet Nam many different systems of ownership of the 



means of production : State-ownership i.e. ownership 
by the entire people, co-operative ownership i.e. 
collective ownership by the working people, private 
ownership by labouring individuals and private 
ownership by national bourgeois. The State has 
different policies towards the various systems of 
ownership according to their nature but all of them 
are upheld and protected by the State. 

State-ownership is ownership by the entire people 
(The State economic sector and all wealth defined by 
law as belonging to the State : mines, rivers, forests 
and mountains, virgin land, territorial waters...) The 
State administers this wealth on behalf of the people. 
Priority is given by the State to the development of 
this system of ownership. 

Collective ownership is co-operative economy (agri- 
cultural producers' co-operatives, handicraft pro- 
ducers' co-operatives and collective organizations of 
working people). With the implementation of this 
system of ownership, the life of the toiling people is 
assured, the system of exploitation of man by man 
abolished and the people are moving to a more 
abundant and happy life. The system of collective 
ownership is particularly encouraged, guided and 
helped to develop. 

In the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam private 
ownership by labouring individuals is still protected 
by law. The State strives to guide and help the 
peasants, handicraftsmen and other labouring indivi- 
duals to improve their work, and encourages them to 
join producers' co-operatives credit co-operatives and 
supply and marketing co-operatives on the principle 
of voluntariness. 

Private ownership by national bougeois is still 
protected by the State as prescribed by law. The State 
endeavours to guide the national bourgeois' activity 
so as to benefit the national interests and people's 
livelihood, making a contribution to the development 
of the national economy and in full keeping with the 

57 



State economic plan. At the same time the State 
encourages and guides the national bourgeois to 
embark on the path of socialist transformation through 
joint State-private enterprise and other forms of 
transformation. In the joint State-private enterprises 
the national bourgeois are employed according to their 
managerial and technical abilities. They still receive 
a part of the profits of their respective enterprises. 
Members of their families are also provided with 
work. The means of living of the national bourgeois 
are still upheld and protected. 

With the present steady and rapid tempo of socialist 
transformation, in the near future, the people's 
position as masters in the economic field will be 
basically realized and all wealth will then be in the 
people's hands. 

As masters in economy, the people have great con- 
sideration for labour which, in Viet Nam, is no longer 
a source that brings wealth to the exploiting class, 
but a source of life and a matter of honour for every- 
one. The Constitution specifies : 

« Labour is the basis on which the people 
develop the national economy and raise their 
material and cultural standards. 

Labour is a duty and a matter of honour 
for every citizen. 

The State encourages the creativeness and 
the enthusiasm in labour of workers by hand 
and brain. » (Article 21). 
In the patriotic competition movement, hundreds of 
thousands of toiling people have become advanced 
workers, model workers and Labour Heroes spring 
up in ever greater numbers like blossoms in Spring- 
time. They are ordinary people : workers in the mines 
and factories, peasants in the co-operatives, employees 
in the State organs, but they are imbued with a very 
high labour consciousness and ardent patriotism. 
They are fully aware for whom they are working and 

58 



how they must work to bring about good results. In 
the patriotic competition movement, initiatives to 
improve technique and work are of paramount impor- 
tance to the labouring people. 

These initiatives are of great benefit to the Father- 
land, that is, to the toiling people themselves. This 
could not exist under the former regime, nor at 
present in south Viet Nam under the U.S. — Diem 
rule where labour means but worry, shame and 
poverty. 

V. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS 

As masters of the country politically and econo- 
mically, citizens of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam enjoy many legitimate rights and interests. 

They have, first of all, the right to work. The 
working people in Viet Nam who formerly went 
through the sad plight of full or semi-unemployment, 
are now very happy to see their right to work clearly 
written into the Constitution. 

Unemployment has been basically solved in the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. Almost all labour- 
ing people have jobs. 

The principle of distribution according to work 
done is put into practice. The eight-hour working day 
is in force in all State enterprises. Salary and wages 
have been increasing gradually. From 1955 up to the 
present salary and wages have been increased three 
times. 

Coupled with the right to work, working people 
also enjoy the right to rest as prescribed by the 
Constitution. Paid annual holidays of ten days are 
in force in all State organs and enterprises. Women 
are paid maternity leave of two months. Conditions 
for rest and entertainment are provided for. A number 
of summer rest houses have been built at watering- 
places. All State organs and enterprises have clubs. 

59 



Citizens of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
have the right to education. Facilities are given by 
the State to enable everyone to go to school. The 
State organizes mass education for the illiterates. 
Classes of supplementary education are opened for 
those who want further education. Education free or 
at a small charge is guaranteed for all children of 
school-age. Enrolment in various types of schools and 
evening classes now runs into 2,700,000, that is 17 
per cent of the population. Compared with the former 
situation when more than 90 per cent of the popula- 
tion were illiterate this is rather an astonishing 
figure. 

Other democratic freedoms are guaranteed the 
citizens. The State guarantees all necessary material 
conditions for citizens to enjoy freedom of assembly, 
freedom of demonstration and freedom of speech. The 
press no longer belongs to a few people but to all 
citizens. Thus the democratic life of the regime has 
become brisk with enthusiastic participation of the 
entire people. 

Freedom of religious belief is also guaranteed. 
Every citizen may practise or not practise religion. 
The State neither interferes in the internal life of the 
religions nor forbids the teaching of religion within 
religious premises (church, pagoda, etc.) But it also 
encourages dissemination of science. 

The Vietnamese people are highly conscious that 
they are masters of their own State. They think not 
only of the rights brought about by the people's 
democratic regime but also of their duties without 
which there can be no rights. They have very actively 
fulfilled their lofty and sacred duties as defined in the 
Constitution : to abide by the Constitution and the 
law, to uphold discipline at work, to keep public order 
and respect social ethics, to respect and protect 
public property, to pay taxes according to law, 

60 



To defend the Fatherland and peace is considered 
as the most sacred and noble duty of the Vietnamese 
people. During the Resistance War they did not 
shrink from sacrifices and hardships in order to per- 
form this duty. Today, they still discharge this duty 
with a high spirit of voluntariness. 



VI. FIRM POLITICAL UNITY OF THE 
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 

One of the main characteristics of the political and 
social regime of Viet Nam is political unity of the 
people. This unity has been forged through a long 
process of struggle, especially since the establish- 
ment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. 

Nowadays, the political unity of the Vietnamese 
people is clearly manifested in the Viet Nam Father- 
land Front set up in 1955 after the restoration of peace 
in Indo-China. This Front continues the policy of 
uniting the entire people in the struggle of the Viet 
Minh Front, set up in 1941, and of the National United 
Front, established in 1946. The Statute of the Front 
points out the aim and objective of the Front : 

« ... To assemble in a broad unity all politic- 
al parties and groups, people's organizations, 
armed forces, personalities, religious denomi- 
nations, races, sections of the population at 
home and of the Vietnamese residents abroad, 
regardless of social standing, political ten- 
dencies, age and sex with a view to : 

Consolidating peace, achieving unity, 
completing independence and democracy all 
over the country; building up a peaceful, 
united, independent, democratic, prosperous 
and strong Viet Nam ; 

61 



Contributing to the safeguarding of peace 
in Indo-China, Southeast Asia and the world ; 
Frustrating all U. S. imperialists' and their 
henchmen's plots to undermine peace, unity, 
independence and democracy in Viet Nam. » 
The Viet Nam Fatherland Front comprises the Viet 
Nam Lao Dong Party, Viet Nam Democratic Party, 
Viet Nam Socialist Party, Viet Nam General Confede- 
ration of Labour, National Liaison Committee of 
Peasants, Viet Nam Women's Union, Viet Nam Youth 
Federation, Writers' and Artists' Union, Viet Nam 
Journalists Association, Viet Nam Unified Buddhist 
Association, National Liaison Committee of Patriotic 
and Peace-loving Catholics, Industrialists and 
Traders Federation, Viet Nam — Soviet Friendship 
Association, Viet Nam — Chinese Friendship Associa- 
tion, Viet Nam French Friendship Association, Com- 
mittee For the Defence of World Peace in Viet Nam, 
Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee in Viet Nam... 

Each Party or organization in the Viet Nam Father- 
land Front is responsible for the implementation of 
the Front's programme but at the same time retains 
its independence. The Front works on the principle 
of democratic discussion, united action, friendly co- 
operation and mutual help for mutual progress. In the 
five years of its existence, the Front has clearly shown 
the power of very broad solidarity. In the struggle for 
the victory of socialism in the North and national 
re-unification, the Viet Nam Fatherland Front is a 
very strong support for the people throughout the 
country, enabling them to become a matchless force. 
Its influence has been spreading ever deeper and 
wider, not only in the North but also in the South, 
not only in the country but also among the Viet- 
namese residents abroad. 

The democratic parties in Viet Nam have made 
many fine contributions to the Revolution in the past 
and continue to do so. 

62 



Set up in 1944, the Viet Nam Democratic Party has 
striven to mobilize the national bourgeoisie and upper 
petty-bourgeoisie to take part in the struggle for 
independence and democracy. It is still stimulating 
them to take part in the socialist transformation and 
the struggle for national re-unification. 

The Viet Nam Socialist Party, founded in 1946, has 
an important effect on the mobilization and education 
of the intellectuals of various strata to take part in 
the national democratic revolution and socialist 
revolution. 

Many people's organizations in the Front have 
bases far and wide among the masses of people and 
are playing an important part in the life of the State 
and of the people. 

The Viet Nam General Confederation of Labour 

is a central trade union organization of hand and 
brain workers. It was set up in 1946, and recognized 
as a member of the World Federation of Trade Unions 
in 1949. It now has a membership of 260,000. The 
Trade Union Law which was ratified by the National 
Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam in 
September 1957, has re-affirmed the important posi- 
tion of the trade unions in the mapping out and 
implementation of State plans, in the working out 
and carrying out of the policies relating to the rights 
and duties of the workers and public employees. 

The Viet Nam Youth Federation is the organiza- 
tion broadly uniting the democratic and patriotic 
youth and has been a member of the World Federa- 
tion of Democratic Youth since 1948. 

Founded in 1941, the Viet Nam Labour Youth Union 
is the core of the Viet Nam Youth Federation. It 
attracts young activists from various labouring 
strata, organizes and educates them, develops their 
youthful enthusiasm, builds up the Fatherland and 
struggles for national re-unification. 

63 



Established in 1946, the Viet Nam Women's Union 

is an organization uniting progressive and patriotic 
women, and struggling for the freedom of the Father- 
land and happiness of the women and children. A 
member of the World Federation of Democratic 
Women since 1946 the Women's Union has been very 
efficient in educating and mobilizing women in the 
revolutionary struggle and in production. Emphasis 
should be laid on the role of the Union in fighting for 
the rights of women, especially in the question of 
marriage and the family. 

The most fundamental factor creating the political 
unity of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam as well 
as its glorious successes, is the clear-sightedness of 
the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party. Today, it is continuing 
the revolutionary struggle waged by the Indochinese 
Communist Party which was founded in 1930. This is 
a Marxist-Leninist Party of the Vietnamese working 
class and labouring people. 

In the fifteen-year struggle under colonial rule, the 
Party made a great many sacrifices : hundreds Party 
members were murdered and thousands jailed. The 
Party has launched many big people's movements : 
the revolutionary upsurge in 1930-31 ; the democratic 
movement in 1936-39 and the upsurge against the 
French and the Japanese ; the preparation for the 
general insurrection prior to 1945. August 1945. 
With less than 4,000 members, the Party led the whole 
people to carry out the General Insurrection and to 
set up the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. In nine 
years, from 1945 to 1954, the Party organized and 
led the struggle to maintain people's power, win the 
Resistance War and institute land reform. It scored 
a great victory. Peace was restored in Indo-China on 
the basis of recognition of the independence and 
sovereignty of Viet Nam, Cambodia and Laos. North 

64 



Viet Nam is completely liberated. Since 1954, the 
Party has been leading economic rehabilitation, 
socialist transformation and socialist construction in 
the North and struggling for national re-unification. 
The resolution of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth 
Sessions of the Central Committee have pointed out 
the road forward for the Vietnamese revolution. The 
common task of the whole Party is to unite, organize 
and lead the Vietnamese people for the maintenance 
of peace, speading up the socialist revolution in the 
North and the people's national democratic revolution 
in the South. It works for the country's unity on the 
basis of independence and democracy to build a 
peaceful, united, independent, democratic, prosperous 
and strong Viet Nam. This is a practical contribution 
to the strengthening of the socialist camp and defence 
of peace in Southeast Asia and in the world. In thirty 
years of revolutionary struggle, the Party has skil- 
fully applied Marxism-Leninism to the practical 
conditions of the revolution in Viet Nam, and worked 
out a correct line and policy. The Party has always 
been monolithic in mind and action. The traditional 
solidarity of the Party based on ideological unity is 
a very fine tradition. 

The Party now has a membership of more than 
430,000, including the most outstanding workers, 
peasants and intellectuals. The Party enjoys the 
boundless confidence of the people. At the January G 
drive to increase Party-membership on the thirtieth 
anniversary of the Party's birthday, tens of thousands 
of people applied for membership. 

The Viet Nam Lao Dong Party regards itself as 
part and parcel of the international communist move- 
ment. It has always been loyal to proletarian interna- 
tionalism, considering the struggle for the triumph 
of peace, democracy and socialism all over the world 
as its own. 

The great leader of the Party is President Ho Chi 
Minh, the persevering and powerful fighter who has 

5 DR 65 



tirelessly struggled for nearly half a century for the 
independence of the Fatherland and happiness of the 
people, the international working class and commu- 
nist movements. He is the most worthy symbol of the 
clearsightedness and determination of the Viet Nam 
Lao Dong Party and at the same time the most out- 
standing representative of the solidarity bloc of the 
whole people. 

The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam — the Viet 
Nam Lao Dong Party— President Ho Chi Minh, these 
are the brightest and most glorious names of which 
all Vietnamese are proud. 



66 



ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 



I: STEPS FORWARD 

Under French rule, Viet Nam's economy was 
limping and most backward. Although her soil was 
fertile, her minerals inexhaustible and her population 
hard-working, the productivity of her industry and 
agriculture was very low. 

Formerly Viet Nam's industry was almost non- 
existent. There were only a few small enterprises set 
up by the French colonialists to extract raw materials 
for their metropolitan industries. Agriculture also 
was most backward, the productivity of the soil being 
among the lowest in South-east Asia. 

With the victory of the 1954 August Revolution, a 
broad Vista of economic development opened up for 
the Vietnamese people. State power mobilized the 
entire people rapidly to quell the famine which started 
at the end of 1944. This eloquently testifies to the 
ability of the Vietnamese in the matter of economic 
management once they became masters of the country. 
Good prospects opened up for the development of Viet 
Nam's national economy. However, no sooner had the 
people buckled down to building an independent 

07 



economy than the French colonialists attempted to 
invade the country once again, thus compelling the 
Vietnamese to wage the Resistance War for national 
salvation. 

The war of liberation increased economic diffi- 
culties. In the regions temporarily under their control, 
the French colonialists and Vietnamese traitors 
maintained their regime of colonial and feudal exploi- 
tation. They left no stone unturned to fleece the people 
and to carry out their slogan of « using the war to 
feed war ». They applied a policy of economic 
blockade and sabotage to the regions freed by the 
Vietnamese or in which the Resistance bases were set 
up. Every year the enemy carried out « raids for 
paddy » to plunder rice and destroy crops in an 
attempt to put the Resistance in a dangerous position. 
However, all the difficulties created by the enemy 
were overcome. Not only did the people keep produc- 
tion going, but, in some localities, they managed to 
raise it and so provide adequate supplies to the 
Resistance. Step by step they eliminated the colonial 
and feudal relations of production in the free zones. 
Even during the Resistance the Party and Govern- 
ment were resolute to carry out land reform step by 
step and in 1953 undertook to secure « land to the 
tiller » on a large scale. The motto, « Let us rely on 
our own efforts to satisfy our requirement in food and 
clothing to resist as long as possible » was carried 
out successfully. 

Peace was restored in Indo-China. Viet Nam was 
temporarily divided into two parts. Before withdraw- 
ing from the North, the French colonialists destroyed 
many economic bases. Moreover, they had coerced 
six hundred thousand Catholic peasants, skilled 
workers and other sections of the population into 
going to the South. The economy, which had been 
limping and backward under French and Japanese 
rule, was heavily damaged by fifteen years of warfare. 
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 

68 



Nam took over a rural area devastated by the enemy, 
and abounding in blockhouses, bunkers, no man's 
lands and minefields. In the cities and industrial 
centres, workshops lay at a standstill and in a state 
of desolation. Famine was looming over north Viet 
Nam. Under the leadership of the Party, the Govern- 
ment and President Ho Chi Minh, and with the help 
of the brother countries, the Vietnamese people were 
resolved to overcome the difficulties in order to build 
up a powerful economy in liberated north Viet Nam, 
and make it a strong base for the struggle for national 
reunification. 

The period of Economic Re-habilitation (1955-1957) 
was aimed at healing the scars left by the war, 
lessening the difficulties of the people, gradually 
improving their material and cultural life, in order 
to create conditions for the economic development 
according to a plan. In less than three years, the 
inhabitants of north Viet Nam removed the aftermath 
left by the French colonialists. 

Feudal vestiges remained in the greater part of 
north Viet Nam's countryside. The main task was to 
complete land reform. It was carried out throughout 
the delta and in the midland, just liberated. In 1957 
it was basically completed, the age-old aspiration of 
the peasants of north Viet Nam had come true. This 
great achievement paved the way for agriculture to 
develop, and created favourable conditions for carry- 
ing out economic re-habilitation simultaneously with 
land reform. 

Completion of land reform stirred great enthusiasm 
among the peasants in their work of production. Pro- 
ducing for themselves for the first time, they worked 
with heart and soul. 125,000 hectares of waste land 
were rapidly reclaimed. Side by side with the posts 
and blockhouses built by the enemy and thickly sur- 
rounded by barbed wire, patches of velvet green rice- 
fields offered a picture full of significant contrast. The 
major hydraulic works destroyed by French planes 

09 



had been repaired and enlarged. In 1956 paddy output 
reached 4,135,600 tons whereas in 1939, under French 
rule, only 2,407,000 tons were harvested. The average 
paddy yield per hectare jumped from 1,304 kilogram- 
mes in 1939 to 1,820 kilogrammes in 1956. Not only 
could the peasants in north Viet Nam overcome the 
preharvest food shortages, but they managed to sell 
their paddy surplus to the government for storage, or 
for export to exchange for machines and other manu- 
factured goods. The re-habilitation and development 
of agricultural production increased the purchasing 
power of the peasants. The rural market was expanded 
accordingly. 

As far as industry is concerned, the existing enter- 
prises have been re-commissioned, and new ones built. 
The prospecting of natural resources was undertaken 
even in the remotest mountains and forests. In spite 
of the scarcity of all kinds — raw materials, 
machinery, technical standard — the working class 
has increased the value of industrial output of 
state enterprises from 38,200,000 dong in 1955, to 
157,300,000 dong in 1956. 

Together with industry and agriculture, transport 
and communications also have been swiftly restored, 
commercial activities develop constantly. During the 
restoration years the financial situation was improved. 
The national income rose gradually. A great part of 
the State budget was earmarked for economic cons- 
truction. Soon after the taking over of the country, 
thanks to the elimination from the market of the Indo- 
chinese piastre left by the enemy, the government 
managed to stabilize the currency and normalize its 
circulation, making it possible to call for capital 
investment to boost production. 

By the end of 1957, together with the completion 
of land reform, economic re-habilitation was realized. 
Taken as a whole, the value of agricultural, handicraft 
and industrial output almost reached the 1939 level. 

70 



At the beginning of 1958, a new task was set as a 
result of the vigorous revolutionary change observed 
among the various strata of the population. In a reso- 
lution adopted by the 14th session of the Central 
Committee of the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party held in 
November 1958, it was clearly stated that, in north 
Viet Nam, the primary task of the entire Party and 
people was 

« To accelerate the socialist revolution, 
especially the socialist transformation of the 
individual economic sector of the peasants 
and artisans, and the private capitalist sector, 
and at the same time to strive to develop the 
State economic sector, which is the guiding 
force in the whole national economy ». 
The Three-Year State Plan (1958-1960) to transform 
economy and develop culture was sanctioned by the 
National Assembly at the end of 1958. The objectives 
laid down in this plan filled the people of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam with overwhelming jov. 
In 1960: 

— The toiling people in north Viet Nam will receive 
a greater supply of food : vegetables, meat, fish, 
sugar, etc... ; 

— The greater part of consumer goods mainly 
foodstuffs, clothing, school requisites and household 
articles will be produced by the people themselves ; 

— Everybody will be able to read, write and calcu- 
late ; the cultural and technical standards will be 
raised steadily ; 

— Unemployment left behind by the imperialists 
and feudalists will be basically liquidated. Manpower 
will be adequately harnessed to production and cons- 
truction. Work will become a bounden duty for every 
citizen ; 

— The development of capital construction will 
increase the productive forces in town and country* 

71 



side. Agricultural and industrial production will 
develop at a quickler tempo. This is the basis for 
constant improvement of the people's livelihood, to 
strengthen national defence, build and transform 
north Viet Nam into a strong mainstay for the 
struggle for national reunification. 

Over these last two years, the Vietnamese people 
have struggled and worked perseveringly and 
tirelessly, overcoming their difficulties and enthusias- 
tically carrying out the tasks set in the Three-Year 
Plan in order to achieve the above-mentioned aims. 



II. AGRICULTURE 

Great success of agricultural co-operation. — The 

basic achievement of land reform has gradually 
changed the face of the countryside. The peasants are 
now masters of their land. Each peasant, be he poor 
peasant or middle peasant, possesses 1,200 square 
metres of land on the average. Formerly a very poor 
peasant owned at the utmost 200 square metres, a poor 
peasant over 500 square metres and a middle peasant 
over 1,000 square metres. 

However, reform in north Viet Nam's countryside 
does not remain there. In the socialist revolution now 
being undertaken in the North, agricultural co-opera- 
tion is regarded as the main task. After the August 
Revolution and during the Resistance, the peasants 
set up the first collective work teams. The work- 
exchange teams were urgently organized to expand 
production and prepare the ground for agricultural 
co-operation. With the Three-Year Plan for economic 
transformation and development and cultural deve- 
lopment, especially as from mid-1958 onward, the 
agricultural co-operation movement embarked on a 
new path, closely connected with the movement to 
increase productivity and improve technique. 

72 



Now throughout north Viet Nam, the co-operatives 
for agricultural production involve 54 per cent of the 
total number of toiling peasant households. Many 
regions have obtained a higher percentage. At the 
end of 1959, the winning of peasants to join co-opera- 
tives in Vinh Linh area was virtually completed. In 
this regard Quang Binh province accounted for 65 
per cent, Thanh Hoa 60.2 per cent, Phu Tho 57.3 per 
cent, Hoa Binh 55 per cent... 




Number of cooperatives 



1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 



73 



Also by the end of 1959, 34.14 per cent of the 
aggregate number of sea fishermen joined co-opera- 
tives. The co-operatives for salt extraction covered 
over 33 per cent of households practising this trade. 

Along with the organization of producers' co-ope- 
ratives, the peasants in north Viet Nam organized 
loan co-operatives and supply and marketing co- 
operatives. At the end of 1958, it was estimated that 
1,300,000 people had taken part in 204 supply and 
marketing co-operatives and 390,000 people in 3,000 
loan co-operatives. At the end of 1959, the supply and 
marketing co-operatives numbered 238, loan co-ope- 
ratives 3,599 and credit co-operatives of the high- 
landers 679. From 1956 to 1959, the loan co-operatives 
were able to induce the peasants to invest over 6 
million dong to contribute to the promotion of agri- 
cultural production. In 1959 alone, this capital reached 
4 million. 

The Government has made every effort to help the 
peasants produce collectively. At the beginning of 
1959, it lent them 19 million dong, the co-operatives 
alone receiving 15 million. 

New acreages and new yields. — Many scientists 
of the French colonial regime had drawn a conclusion 
most damning to agriculture production in north Viet 
Nam. They alleged that agriculture could not make 
headway ; on the contrary, it was bound to decline 
gradually. They explained the state of poverty and 
famine of the peasants in north Viet Nam by the fact 
that the land was 'exhausted', the acreage of arable 
land 'limited' and the population Very dense'... The 
actual situation of agricultural production in north 
Viet Nam at present has smashed these groundless 
assertions. After land reform, the Party and Govern- 
ment laid down the task of accelerating agricultural 
production, first and foremost food production, 
simultaneously with the development and consolida- 
tion of the work-exchange teams. 

74 



First, let us speak of acreage. North Viet Nam is a 
small but densely populated country (the mountainous 
regions excepted). Applying the slogans, «A square 
inch of land is worth an ounce of gold », and « Let no 
land lie fallow », the peasants in north Viet Nam have 
greatly increased the acreage of arable land as per 
the following figures : in 1939 area under cultivation 
was 2,124,900 hectares, while in 1957, it covered 
2,752,300 hectares, of which the ricefields accounted 
for 2,653,500 hectares. Virgin land cleared by army 
farms amounted to more than 10,000 hectares. In 
future, the North will be in a position to increase its 
planting area, chiefly by clearing the mountainous 
and middle regions. 

The most remarkable fact in agricultural production 
is the raising of the productivity of the soil. The 
peasants in north Viet Nam have recorded yields so 
far unknown in the history of the country. In 1939, a 
hectare of ricefield, taking summer and autumn crops 
together, yielded 1,304 kilogrammes while from 1955 
onward this yield has gradually risen as follows : 

1955 1,620 kilogrammes 

1956 1,820 — 

1957 1,801 — 

1958 2,047 — 

1959 2,284 — 



2,4 07 



3,5 23.4 



4,135.6 



3,9 48 



4,576,9 



1939 1955 1956 1957 1958 

Total output of paddy (in thousand tons). 



5,193 

o 



1959 



(5 



Autumn crops considered alone yielded 2,378 kilo- 
grammes in 1958, and 2,411 kilogrammes in 1959. 
These are among the highest paddy yields recorded 
in South-east Asia. 

Due to the rapid increase of paddy yield, the total 
output has also risen swiftly. In 1959, the total output 
of paddy was 5,193,000 tons, this production and that 
of other subsidiary crops converted into paddy 
amounting to nearly 6 million tons. Compared with 
the 1939 figure of 2,407,000 tons, this testifies to the 
big strides the Vietnamese have made in the field of 
agricultural production. North Viet Nam countryside 
can now definitively get rid of the state of poverty 
which was so terrible in former times. It is now 
possible to solve the food problem in the North. The 
people as well as the State begin to have enough food 
to spare. In the meantime, the fertile ricefields of south 
Viet Nam lying under the U. S. — Diem grip, pro- 
duced 3,000,000 tons in 1959* or nearly half the 1939 
figure. 

A many-sided agriculture. — The transformation of 
agricultural production in north Viet Nam can also be 
witnessed in the fact that formerly agriculture con- 
centrated almost exclusively in rice planting, whereas 
at the present time, it is turning out many products 
and giving rise to many occupations. While food pro- 
duction continues to be considered as the main 
agricultural task, the other sections of agriculture 
such as industrial crops, animal husbandry, fishery, 
forestry, side-occupations, are not neglected. 

The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam enjoys 
favourable climatic conditions to grow many kinds 
of industrial crops badly needed for domestic economic 
expansion and for export. Successes are now being 
recorded in the cultivation of fibrous plants, oil- 



* Figure taken from the Economic Bulletin issued in south 
Viet Nam in June 1960. 



76 



bearing plants, sugar cane, tea, coffee, lac-trees, 
fruit trees, odoriferous plants, medicinal plants, 
tobacco, etc... The production of seed cotton, formerly 
low in north Viet Nam (1,000 tons in 1939) rose to 
6,157 tons in 1959. There are good prospects to 
satisfy the requirements in cotton and cotton goods 
by the people's own efforts. 

The cultivation of a number of industrial plants 
develops at a fairly quick tempo. The area under coffee 
has been expanded compared with 1955, the acreage 
in 1959 increased threefold. Experiments conducted 
on rubber tree planting have given satisfactory 
results. Attention has been paid to re-habilitating and 
developing sericulture. Many kinds of Viet Nam's 
industrial crops have enjoyed great popularity abroad. 

Sea fishery develops at a rapid pace. Ricefield and 
lagoon fishing is expanding. 

Animal husbandry has also been accelerated. In 
1957, the number of oxen and buffaloes amounted to 
2,405,000 head as against 1,351,000 head in 1938. 

Attention is being paid to afforestation : the number 
of trees planted in 1959 was 10 times greater than in 
1956. 

Hydraulics and technical improvement. — The 
movement to improve farming technique has been 
supported by the broad masses of peasants who have 
taken part in it. Today many people understand the 
method of interdependent techniques and apply it 
eagerly : sufficient water, abundant manure, deep 
ploughing, close planting, good seed, suitable season, 
combating insects and plant diseases, proper land and 
ricefields management. It can be said that for the first 
time in the history of Viet Nam a movement for 
improvement of farming technique of a mass character 
has been undertaken. 

The peasants have been paying the greatest atten- 
tion to water. They are now putting into practice 
President Ho Chi Minh's appeal « to turn the devas- 
tating water into useful water ». Shortly after the re- 

77 



establishment of peace, the Government restored the 
hydraulic systems destroyed during the war. On 
January 1, 1955, 12 hydraulic systems in all were 
opened to irrigation. The surface watered by the big, 
medium and small size works increased gradually, 
and reached 2,100,000 hectares in 1960 or more than 
double the planned figure of 1955. During three years 
(1958-1960) the construction of the big, medium and 
small size irrigation works required 196,913,360 cubic 
metres of earth, 520,850 cubic metres of stone and 
58,320 cubic metres of concrete. In 1959, the first 
section of the big Bac-Hung-Hai hydraulic system 
was completed. The Xuan Quan sluice was opened to 
let the water flow into the newly built canals. Lately 
the Council of Ministers has decided to blueprint the 
project to tame the Red River with a view to elimina- 
ting flood and drought in north Viet Nam and 
harnessing its hydraulic force in the service of the 
people. 

Every year, the country is dangerously exposed to 
river and sea inundation. For this reason the Party 
and Government have paid particular attention to 
strengthening sea and river protecting dykes. During 
the three-year period (1958-1960) alone, the dyke 
construction sites handled 33,128,660 cubic metres of 
earth, 528,610 cubic metres of stone and 9,780 cubic 
metres of concrete, figures many times bigger than 
those recorded under French rule. 

The movement for manuring is growing day by day. 
The former erroneous tendency of farming without 
manure has now basically disappeared. Apart from 
dung and green composts, chemical fertilizers are 
used in ever greater quantities. Since 1955 the per 
hectare utilization of manure has notably increased : 





2,700 kilogrammes of 


animal dung 


in 1955 




3,400 




in 1956 




3,600 




in 1957 




5,300 — 




in 1958 


rom 


8,000 to 10,000 kilogrammes 


in 1959 



78 



The peasants have raised their knowledge of 
manures and compete with one another in improving 
manuring methods, things never done before. At the 
beginning of this year, Nguyen Thi Hoan, an out- 
standing manuring worker collected a record of 3,000 
kilogrammes of manure. This effort inspired others 
and her record has since been surpassed many times. 

The movement for close planting is stirring all 
north Viet Nam's countryside. The peasants are now 
gradually getting rid of the old-fashioned working 
routine. The obsolete conception that «thin planting 
yields more paddy, whereas close planting gives 
nothing to eat » has been replaced by the new slogan 
saying that «thin planting wastes land, whereas close 
planting gives enough paddy to fill up granaries ». 

The movement for the improvement of farm imple- 
ments began with the 1958 autumn crop and is now 
spreading. Apart from the plough model-51 and the 
double share plough, there are harrows suitable for 
watered ricefields and subsidiary crop fields, soil- 
crushing rollers and weeding harrows of Nghe An 
model. For the processing of agricultural products, 
the peasants have invented apparatus to chop sweet 
potatoes, grind cassava roots and thresh paddy. These 
contrivances and innovations have shortened the 
working hours, eased farming work, raised the work 
efficiency and improved the peasants' livelihood. 

The successes recorded in the field of agricultural 
production during the years following the re- 
establishment of peace, were the most important 
achievements obtained by the people of north Viet 
Nam and had a paramount significance in the 
economic and political position. 



III. INDUSTRY 

Rapidity of industrial development. -- Perhaps it 
is unnecessary to recall the backward state of Viet 
Nam's industry during French domination. The Demo- 

79 



cratic Republic of Viet Nam has started her industrial 
construction from scratch. Over these last years while 
most of the people's force has been devoted to agri- 
cultural production, the main link in the overall 
national economic system, the Vietnamese have 
enthusiastically buckled down to the development of 
their industry. 

The number of State industrial enterprises roses 
from 27 in 1955 to 300 in 1959, and in 1960 72 major 
projects are being built in addition. A great number 
of new factories are springing up throughout north 
Viet Nam. They are flowers which enrich the country, 
and lay the foundation for its industrialization. 





1955 1959 

Number of Stale industrial enterprises, 



Industrial development makes it necessary to 
improve the management of enterprises in order to 
raise the labour efficiency of the w r orkers. At the 
beginning of 1958, the Party Central Committee 
decided to launch a movement to improve the mana- 
gement of enterprises in the State economic sector. 
A new wind has blown into the State-run enterprises 
and heightened further the socialist ardour of the 
workers. The latter have taken part in the manage- 



80 



ment of every section of the enterprises, and organized 
production teams. Many technical innovations have 
been introduced, many production records obtained, 

If 100 is the index of the labour efficiency in State 
industrial enterprises in 1955, this figure rose to 292.5 
in 1957, 391.7 in 1958 and 479.1 in 1959. 

The rapid tempo of industrial development, made 
possible by the efforts of the Party, Government and 
working class, is indeed a source of enthusiasm for 
the entire people. 

In 1959 the total value of industrial and handicraft 
production increased 4.14 times over 1955, or 27.9 
per cent per year on the average. The total value of 
State industrial output increased 16 times : electric 
power 3 times, extraction and processing of non- 
ferrous metals more than 7 times, fuel 3.5 times, build- 
ing materials 36.7 times, lumber 13.3 times, weaving, 
clothing, dyeing and tanning 10.6 times... Modern 
industry which accounted for only 3.4 per cent of the 
total value of industrial output in 1955, rose to 12.5 
per cent in 1959, or almost 4 times. Many new kinds 
of manufactured goods have appeared in the market. 
From 184 varieties in 1955 the State-run enterprises 
alone were able to produce 1,062 kinds of goods 
in 1959. 



Total value of industrial and handicraft production. 
Total value of industrial production. 
Total value of State industrial production. 



1.3 1 1,2 




CDPi 



Guiding role of State industry. — State industry 
plays the guiding role in industrial production. It is 
the foundation stone of socialist industry and supplies 
to the national economy a sizable part of consumer 
goods and principal producer goods ; it directs private 
capitalist industry into the path of socialist transform- 
ation and helps handicrafts develop along co- 
operative lines. 

At the end of 1959, State industry accounted for 80 
per cent of the total value of industrial output. 

Simultaneously with the industrial enterprises run 
by the central authorities, the locally run enterprises 
will be built gradually. The network of local industries 
is set up with a view to serving agriculture and com- 
plementing the enterprises run by the central autho- 
rities. The local industries have made fairly good 
progress. At the beginning of 1960 there were over 
500 enterprises turning out farm implements, ferti- 
lizers, rudimentary means of transport, building 
materials and processing agricultural products. 

The industries run by the central authorities and 
those run locally expand powerfully. Not only do they 
turn out many kinds of products and accelerate the 
development of the national economy, but they give 
rise to a new generation of workers more numerous 
than the old one. Compared with 1955, the number of 
workers in 1959 was 4 times greater. If the workers 
employed in capital construction were included, this 
figure would be higher. The existing ranks of engineers 
and technicians are swollen by those trained at home 
and in the brother countries. The stronger the work- 
ing class, the more effective is its leadership in its 
task of leading the whole society rapidly to the path 
of socialist construction. 

The network of State industry is completed with the 
transformation of private industry and by handicraft 
workers forming co-operatives. In the whole of north 
Viet Nam, there were 166 enterprises, employing 

§2 



more than 40 workers and 3,700 enterprises enrolling 
more than 6 workers. In 1957 alone, these enterprises 
employing 86,000 workers, were transformed into low 
and middle State capitalist form and at the beginning 
of 1958 into joint State-private enterprises which are 
the highest form of State capitalism. By the end of 
1959, the transformation of private capitalist industry 
was basically completed. The work efficiency in State- 
private industrial enterprises was raised. In a number 
of enterprises, the output is 4 or 5 times higher than 
before. After the transformation of the Thuy Khe 
tanning mill into a joint State-private enterprises, its 
workers were able to tan about 4,200 pieces of hide 
in a month, boosting production almost 3 times ; the 
motor repair workshop «Tu Luc » raised its efficiency 
by 80 per cent, and the bicycle factory « Dan Sinh » 
by 60 per cent. 

Handicrafts is an important force complementing 
industrial production. It occupies a noticeable position 
in the national economy because it covers 149,000 
enterprises involving 720,000 artisans. The Handi- 
crafts Exhibition held early in 1958 displayed 1,456 
branches with 10,145 varieties and many innovations 
regarding technical improvement, increase of yield, 
raising of the quality of goods and curtailment of 
production costs. Handicrafts have supplied to agri- 
culture a large range of improved farm implements 
and to the construction branch, building materials 
such as timber, bricks and tiles. It supplies to the 
peasants the greater part of consumer goods. 

Since the restoration of peace, handicrafts in north 
Viet Nam have developed quite strongly and contri- 
buted a noteworthy part to the re-habilitation and 
development of the economy. However, owing to the 
state of dispersed individual production, capitalism 
can still find grounds to develop thus hamstringing 

83 



the improvement of the people's livelihood. That is 
why the joining of co-operatives by the artisans is 
regarded as an urgent task. Only by bringing the 
artisans into co-operatives can one help them impro- 
ve their technique, make full use of their potentialities, 
adapt their production to the plan for the development 
of the national economy and raise their living 
standards. By the end of 1959, the artisans grouped 
into co-operatives accounted for nearly 60 per cent. 
The co-operation in handicrafts accelerates produc- 
tion. At the beginning of 1960, the value of handicraft 
output increased by 18.2 per cent over 1958. 

The transformation of private capitalist industry 
and the formation of co-operatives in handicrafts have 
recorded a noteworthy result. They extend State 
industry to form an industrial network covering the 
whole of north Viet Nam. 



IV. DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITAL 
CONSTRUCTION 

Capital construction in north Viet Nam is mainly 
aimed at consolidating the State economic sector, the 
foundation of the whole national economy. Its purpose 
is also to build the bases for scientific researches and 
cultural undertakings, dwelling houses and public 
utilities, to develop economy and culture and improve 
the livelihood of the working people. 

With this aim, on the one hand the State makes 
appropriations, on the other, it encourages the co- 
operatives and production groups to invest their 
capital, and directs and helps the people to build up 
bases of production. In the Three-Year Plan 
(1958-1960) appropriations for capital construction 
amount to 1,547,300,000 dong, or nearly twofold the 

m 



figure of the three-year period of Economic Re-habili- 
tation. Of this amount, 1,273,400,000 dong have been 
invested in production, as per the following figures : 

Industry 652,000,000 dong 46.52 % 

Agriculture ....... 188,000,000 — 10.52% 

Transport and com- 
munications 318,000,000 — 17.47% 

State purchase and 

stockpiling 114,000,000 — 6.43% 

The ratio of appropriation for heavy industry 
amounts to 73 per cent as against 27 per cent for light 
industry 

Together with capital construction in industry, 
attention has been paid to the execution of other 
important undertakings : building of big hydraulic 
systems, expansion of reclamation of waste land and 
development of State farms ; improvements in trans- 
port and communications : the overhaul and building 
of various railway lines, roads and waterways, and 
the extension of sea ports. Attention has also been 
paid to geological survey and scientific researches in 
order to pave the way to forthcoming economic 
development. The State has seen to the investment of 
money in cultural and educational work, in health 
protection, scientific researches and housing. 

The tempo of work has risen day by day. Various 
jobs such as fitting machines, driving concrete piles, 
levelling concrete, mixing, handling earth, which were 
done by hand are now carried out by machines. 

The improvement of technique has accelerated the 
work of construction. The quicker that work is, the 
faster factories and workshops spring up. In the not 
distant future, new industrial centres will appear on 
the map of north Viet Nam, a thing formerly only 
dreamt about. 

85. 



V. STRENGTHENING AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT 

During the Resistance War, most of the transport 
and communication lines were destroyed. There were 
only about 100 kilometres of railway line left; motor 
road were impassable, and ports brought to a stand- 
still. Since the restoration of peace, the re-habilitation 
and development of the transport and communications 
network has been urgently undertaken. This plan 
dovetailed with the plan for the development of indus- 
try, agriculture and capital construction. The volume 
of goods handled in 1955 was 201,300,000 tons-kilo- 
metres while in 1959 it amounted to 903,500,000 tons- 
kilometres, an increase of 4.5 times ; rail transport 
rose by 16 times and road transport 3.5 times. 

More than 600 kilometres of railway have been 
rapidly restored including the Hanoi — Muc Nam 
Quan line, the Hanoi — Lao Cai and Hanoi — Ham 
Rong line. A new section linking Hanoi to the iron 
and steel centre of Thai Nguyen has been laid. 

Hanoi is connected by rail with Peking and Moscow. 

Together with the development of railways and 
waterways, sea transport has been vigourously attend- 
ed to. The work of removing rocks and waterfalls is 
being undertaken to make navigation possible in 
mountainous areas. River mouths and harbours are 
dredged to develop maritime transport and commu- 
nication. Two thousand-ton ships which were obliged 
to cast anchor off the port, can now moor alongside 
the wharves. 

As far as road transport is concerned, main roads 
have been restored, 1,850 kilometres of existing roads 
repaired, while 1,200 kilometres of new roads have 
been built. Compared with the road system under 
French rule, the road network is 38 per cent longer. 

Civil airlines begin to link Hanoi to Dien Bien Phu 
and Hanoi to Dong Hoi. 

m 



Hanoi is connected by air with Canton and Peking. 

Thanks to the re-habilitation and development of 
the lines of communication, the volume of goods 
transported is on a sharp increase, thus basically 
satisfying the requirements of the national economy 
in the course of its development. 

The Post and telecommunications service is streng- 
thened and spreads all over the country, from town 
to countryside and as far as the border regions. Tele- 
phone and wireless communication are no longer 
unknown to the population. 

State transport prevails in rail, road, water and 
coastal traffic. The State has gradually brought the 
management of the transportation service under a 
plan that unifies the handling of means of transport, 
the flow of goods and the rate of freight. Summing up, 
over the last six years, transport and communication 
have played an important role in the expansion of 
production and in the economic prosperity of the 
country by accelerating the circulation of commodities 
between town and countryside. 



VI. TRADE 

Even during the Resistance War, trade played an 
important part in building the Resistance forces and 
at the same time built an independent trade in the 
free zone. Since the North has been liberated, trade 
has expanded swiftly, contributing to the development 
of production and improving the people's livelihood. 
It is conductive to economic transformation and 
strengthens the socialist economic front. 

Over the past few years, socialist trade, composed 
of State trade and supply and marketing co-opera- 
tives, has been strengthened and developed. From 
1955 to 1959, turnover of State trade increased 5.7 
times, that of retail trade over 4 times. The supply 



87 



and marketing co-operatives which numbered 36 in 
1955 with a membership of 258,762 rose to 238 in 
1959 and involved 1,633,215 people. 

. The consolidation and development of State- trade, 
and supply and marketing co-operatives, give predo- 
minance to the socialist sector in the trading branch 
in north Viet Nam. This is decisive in persuading 
private capitalist trade to embark on the path of 
socialist transformation. At present many capitalist 
traders have switched over to private-State partner- 
ship. By the end of 1960, this transformation will 
basically be completed. 

Simultaneously with the socialist transformation of 
the private capitalist traders, the small traders are 
re-organized. A number have voluntarily switched 
over to productive work in various branches of indus- 
try, agriculture, State trade or in supply and market- 
ing co-operatives. They are now joining co-operatives. 
At present about 30 per cent are working in co-opera- 
tive organizations or co-operative shops. Their trading 
character has changed. Their ideological conscious- 
ness and their willingness to serve the toiling masses 
have risen. 

The traders of the old society involved in hole-and- 
corner transactions and speculations have gradually 
been superseded by State trade workers whose aim 
is to serve the people. The most representative of them 
is trade hero Nguyen Tan Anh who has worked devo- 
tedly day and night for the benefit of the people and 
the State. 

By strengthening and developing State trade and 
the supply and marketing co-operatives, transforming 
private capitalist trade and re-organizing the small 
traders, the trading branch has efficiently served pro- 
duction and the people's livelihood. It has been able 
to regularize the circulation of goods and con- 
sequently stabilize the prices. Since, 1955, though the 
prices of some commodities have risen to some extent, 

88 



generally speaking prices are either stabilized or on 
the downward trend. Compared with 1956, in 1959 the 
general price index of staple commodities dropped 
3.7 per cent. Under colonial and feudal rule, the 
market was uncertain and price fluctuations frequent. 
This state of things still exists in the South, under the 
U. S. — Diem regime. 



* 
* # 



IMPORTS 



Index of development 
of foreign trade 



EXPORTS 



100 



141,6 



100 



986 



1955 I959 



1955 I 9 59 



89 



With the extension of the circulation of goods 
within the country, Viet Nam also develops her 
foreign trade. The volume of her exports is constantly 
on the increase. If 100 is taken as the index of 1955, 
in 1959 this figure rose to 985. Many important export 
items were not produced before the war such as 
apatite, plywood, planks, silk fabrics, knitted goods, 
ready-made clothes, foodstuffs, leather articles. The 
export-import department also pays great attention to 
intensifying the import of goods needed for the deve- 
lopment of the economy and improvement of the 
people's livelihood on the principle of protecting 
home-made products, and guaranteeing the indepen- 
dent development of the national economy. Among the 
imported commodities, consumer goods have been 
gradually lowered. In 1955 they made up 54.9 per 
cent of our imports, while in 1959 they accounted for 
14.7 per cent only. Over the last few years, Viet Nam 
has chiefly imported producer goods. 

By the end of 1959, commercial relations were 
established with twenty five countries. Trading with 
the socialist countries constitutes the biggest part of 
foreign trade, totalling over 70 per cent. In addition 
Viet Nam is eager to trade with a number of Asian 
and African countries, including India, Cambodia, 
Indonesia and some other capitalist countries. 



VII. FINANCE AND CURRENCY 

During the past few years, finance and currency in 
north Viet Nam have shown that national economy is 
on the way to consolidation and development. The 
extension of agricultural and industrial production 
has brought about an increase in the people's income 
and acceleration of the circulation of commodities. 
Consequently, national finance is strengthened and 
currency is more stabilized and efficient in pushing 
production forward. 

90 



During the first years following the re-establishment 
of peace, State income consisted of taxes paid and 
contributions made by enterprises and services in the 
country and important aid from the brother countries. 
But later on the national income drew its source 
mainly from the contribution made by enterprises and 
services in the country in overgrowing proportion. In 
1955 for instance, the income contributed by various 
enterprises and services accounted for 6.5 per cent of 
the overall income while in 1959 it reached 52.2 
per cent. 

Always anxious to curtail the contribution made 
by the people, the State has amended taxation policy. 
In 1955, income from taxation accounted for 49.3 per 
cent of the overall income, while in 1959 this figure 
was reduced to 28.5 per cent. In particular agricul- 
tural tax has been greatly reduced. In 1955 it 
amounted to 30.6 per cent of the overall income while 
in 1959, it represented 9.3 per cent only. Apart from 
teaching the people to make contributions in accor- 
dance with their ability, agricultural tax accelerates 
production and encourages the peasants to embark 
on the path of co-operation. 

Together with the national increase of income, its 
management is subject to a tight control. The Party 
and Government pay keen attention to combating 
corruption and waste, and highlight among the cadres 
and the people at large the spirit of labour and saving 
in national construction. 

The budget of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
is a budget devoted to the cause of peace and is aimed 
primarily at developing economy and culture. In 1958, 
economic construction and cultural development 
accounted for 67.2 per cent of the budget while in 
1959 it reached nearly 70 per cent. 

This budget contrasts eloquently with the war 
budget of the U. S. — Diem regime in south Viet Nam. 
Not including the income mainly derived from U. S. 

91 



« aid », a glimpse at the distribution of expenditure 
clearly shows that the budget of south Viet Nam 
under the U. S. — Diem regime is certainly a budget 
serving warlike purposes. In 1959 military expendi- 
ture and various items referring to it absorbed the 
greatest part of the budget, i. e. 86.88 per cent. 

During the past years the currency and bonds of 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam have been the 
object of special attention. In five years, from 1955 to 
1959, the loans granted by the National Bank of Viet 
Nam to develop national economy rose from 96,100,000 
dong to 2,064,000,000 dong. This institution has con- 
centrated in its hands all the sources of capital 
temporarily kept idle by the State and the people in 
order to expand production and step up the circulation 
of goods. This source of capital has swollen day by 
day and in 1959 it was 32 per cent bigger than in 
1958. In the countryside the network of credit co- 
operatives has been established with a view to meeting 
the peasants' requirements in capital to expand 
production and improve their livelihood. 



92 



PEOPLES LIFE EVER BETTER 



In the hard conditions in all fields of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam during the past 15 years, 
the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party and the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam Government have paid constant 
attention to improving the people's living conditions, 
considering this as their supreme duty. 

The appalling scenes of the old society have 
gradually receded. In the present-day Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam, the chronic famine and poverty 
of the colonial days are no more. Beggary, which 
was rife in the old society, no longer exists. Gone also 
is the sight of contingents of unemployed queuing 
up for jobs. 

When working out the Three-Year Plan (1958-1960) 
the Party and the Government underlined : the 
highest goal of the Socialist Revolution is to raise 
the living standards of the working people on the 
basis of an ever developing economy and culture, to 
make them cultured and healthy and to render their 
life ever more pleasant and happy. As the aftermath 
of long colonial and feudal domination, the living 
standards of the people are still low. To improve 
further the people's life is therefore an urgent econo- 
mic and political requirement. 

93 



L FOOD, CLOTHING AND LODGING 

For Viet Nam, which has just emerged from long 
years of colonial domination, to ensure that everybody 
gets enough rice to eat and clothes to wear is of 
tremendous significance. 

In a relatively short period, food consumption has 
been raised to an unprecedented level. Food consump- 
tion per head of population has increased rapidly: 
the per capita share of paddy and other food was 
227.7 kilograms in 1939; in 1959 it rose to 367.2 
kilograms and more. 

The following table shows the increase of food 
consumption per head of population during five years : 



Rice 

Meat 

Sugar 


Unit 


1955 


1959 


Kilo 


115 
4.24 
0.58 


160.8 
7.1 
1.2 



Although the food problem has not yet been solved 
completely, the working people in north Viet Nam 
have now more paddy and other staple foods such as 
vegetables, meat, fish and sugar. In many localities 
where only a few years ago the people had to eat 
rice soup, sweet potatoes or manioc in place of rice, 
there is now enough rice for everybody to have two 
or even three meals per day. 

As for clothing, it is common knowledge that under 
French domination, famine usually went side by side 
with raggedness. The textiles produced in the country 
fell below needs and their prices were far beyond the 
reach of the working people. 



94 



Even in the first years after the end of the war, 
the quantity of textiles supplied to the people increas- 
ed constantly. The per capita consumption of 
textiles of various kinds rose from 3.52 metres in 1955 
to 4.98 metres in 1959. 

Though still facing many difficulties, the State 
has made considerable efforts to solve the housing 
problem step by step, especially in the urban areas. 
In Hanoi, Haiphong and other industrial centres, the 
Government has allotted big sums for the construction 
of new houses and the repair and expansion of many 
others for workers and other working people. 

In addition, the Government has also paid parti- 
cular attention to building community housing 
settlements for workers and public servants. In the 
three years ending 1957, 157,422 square metres of 
new housing space were built and another 101,000 
square metres repaired. At the Nam Dinh Textile 
Plant, the number of houses built in the years 1956 
and 1957 equalled the total built by the French 
employers in 40 years ; at the Cam Pha coal mine 
it equalled the number of houses built by the French 
in 70 years. 

In the Three-Year Plan (1958-1960) State invest- 
ments in house building are 66.5 million dong, more 
than five times as much as in the three years of 
economic rehabilitation (1955-1957). 

House rents paid by workers and public servants 
in community housing settlements are only between 
2% and 3% of their wages. At the Hong Gai coal 
enterprise in 1957, an average worker who earned 
65.6 dong per month, paid only 2 dong or 3.48% of 
his wages to the factory for lodging, electricity and 
water (In 1939, under French domination, workers 
at the Nam Dinh Textile Plant had to pay 27.4% of 
their wages as house rents). Many community dining 
rooms have been built with adequate furniture, 



Vessels and kitchen utensils. Mention should also be 
made of the creches and reception rooms reserved 
for the workers' families and visitors. 

In the countryside, as a result of the increasing 
income, a great many peasants have been able to 
build new houses. 

In north Viet Nam today, unemployment is being 
gradually eliminated. Under French rule, unemploy- 
ment was an incurable permanent social evil. The 
army of unemployed swelled daily... and, at one time 
during World War II, the number of workers dropped 
to a quarter of the usual figure. 

In 1954, when the French colonialists withdrew 
from north Viet Nam, they left behind more than 
140,000 jobless people including nearly 100,000 
workers. The life of these people was very miserable. 

In the first days after the restoration of peace, 
many difficulties were encountered in finding a solu- 
tion to unemployment : industry was almost non- 
existent and agriculture was only in the early stage 
of restoration. In the three years of economic rehabi- 
litation the State provided jobs for tens of thousands 
of unemployed workers and other jobless people in 
the cities, at the construction sites of railways, water 
conservancy projects and communication lines. At the 
same time the restored factories and the newly built 
ones admitted former workers en masse. 

At present, unemployment left by the old regime 
has been fundamentally eliminated. The dark cloud 
of unemployment has gradually disappeared in the 
bright sky of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. 
This situation is in direct contrast with the precarious 
life of the working people in south Viet Nam where 
the unemployment figure in 1959 already exceeded 
1,500,000. 

,96 



II. INCOME AND WAGES 

Formerly the income of the Vietnamese was among 
the lowest in the world. The overwnelming majority 
of toiling people did not earn enough to make a 
living, wretchedly low though it was. 

As a result of the development of national economy, 
since north Viet Nam was liberated in 1954, the 
people's income has gradually increased. If 100 is 
taken as an index for the average income of the 
people in 1957, the figure are 109.3 for 1958 and 
127.7 for 1959. 

The improvement of the wages system proves the 
constant concern of the leading Party and Govern- 
ment for the life of workers, armymen and office 
employees, and the great efforts of the Party and 
Government in raising living standards. 

During the war of Resistance, due to war-time 
difficulties, everybody might share the common weal 
and woe. Though each wage scale had different 
grades, the .difference in wages was very small, and 
« equalitarianism » prevailed. 

After peace was restored in 1954, the people had 
to engage in economic rehabilitation under very hard 
conditions. Nevertheless, the wages system has been 
greatly improved. At the end of 1954, all workers and 
office employees enjoyed a wage increase: 50% for 
those living in Hanoi and 40% for those in other 
parts of north Viet Nam. 

In July 1955, the Government decreed a new wages 
system, reducing to some extent the « equalitarian » 
character of the previous wages systems and begin- 
ning to apply the socialist principle of pay according 
to work done. Wages increased by from 20% to 25%. 

At the end of 1956, wages again increase by from 
5% to 12%: 

In 1958, economic rehabilitation was successfully 
completed ; economic transformation and develop- 

7 DR 97 



ment and cultural development were begun. The new 

revolutionary tasks required a new wages policy. The 

■J 3th meeting of the Central Committee of the Viet 

Nam Lao Dong Party pointed out in its resolution: 

« An urgent economic and political task is 

to improve the present wages system and 

increase wages appropriately, in order to 

reduce the difficulties of workers and office 

employees and raise to some extent their 

living standards, thereby encouraging them 

to increase production and make still more 

active contributions to national construction. » 

The Government decided on a 13% wage increase 

for both the production and administration sectors. 

In May 1960, the Council of Ministers again decided 
on a 12% wage increase under the terms of the Three- 
Year Plan. The wages system was further improved 
on the socialist principle of pay according to work 
done. 

The Party and Government have also shown great 
concern for increasing the income of peasants. 
Working peasants are getting more and more food 
and clothes. The efforts made by the State in develop- 
ing capital construction and credit organs, buying 
farm products from and selling manufactured goods 
to the peasants, and in other fields have helped to in 
crease the income and purchasing power of the 
peasants. 

The improvement of the peasants' life has found its 
expression not only in the raising of their material 
living standards, but also in their bigger investments 
in production, such as buying farm tools and fertilizer 
and building irrigation works. These investments are 
the key for peasants to constantly improve their life. 
At the end of 1959, they bought over 40,000 draught 
animals, over 50,000 tons of phosphate and 10,000 

98 



farm tools. The cutting of expenditure on funerals, 
weddings and anniversaries has also saved much 
money for production. 

The gradual reduction of agricultural tax has 
moreover considerably increased the actual income 
of peasants. 



III. SOCIAL WELFARE 

In appraising the life of the working people, one 
must take into account the constant raising of their 
living standards resulting from the policies and social 
activities of the State. 

The following are social measures taken to protect 
labour, care for health of workers, public servants, 
pregnant women, children and to improve the labour- 
ing people's cultural life. 

Labour safety— The Viet Nam Lao Dong Party 
and the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Government 
have paid particular attention to the improvement of 
working conditions for workers and public servants. 
The working day is 8 hours in general, and below 8 
hours for workers doing heavy jobs (miners in the 
pits, divers, workers working at dangerous places...) 
Workers who have to work at night and at dangerous 
places receive health allowances. 

Besides, the Government has taken measures to 
prevent labour accidents. All machines that may 
cause accidents are provided with protective equip- 
ment. As a result, labour accidents have been reduced 
day by day. 

Public health — Industrial and office workers who 
fall ill enjoy paid holidays and health allowances, and 
free treatment at the hospitals. The network of hospi- 
tals and infirmaries has been widely expanded, and 
closely linked with production bases. Under French 
domination, the dispensary at the Cam Pha colliery 

99 



.Was a tiny, dirty, damp place with only a few beds 
and a handful of medicines. It is now replaced by a 
fully equipped hospital located in a two-storeyed 
building of the former French employer, with hundreds 
of beds. 

At the Hong Gai coal mine, only three years after 
its liberation, the number of hospital beds increased 
2.2 times, highly qualified medical workers 8 times, 
and attendants and midwives 6.3 times. Besides, the 
Government has built sanatoria for sick workers and 
rest homes for old people. Sanatoria and rest homes 
are located at cool places having supply and rest 
facilities, such as Haiphong, Sam Son and Cua Hoi. 

The Government has also made great efforts to 
protect children and expectant mothers. Pregnant 
workers and public servants enjoy a two-month leave 
with full pay, Besides, they are given a quantity of 
clothes and health allowances. Attention is given to 
their examination. Mothers who cannot nurse their 
o\vn babies receive a milk allowance. Maternity 
houses have been expanded and improved. 

To help mothers in looking after their children 
during work time, the Government has established a 
network of creches caring for children below three 
years of age. Babysitters are carefully trained in both 
the education and feeding of children. 

Financial assistance has been given by the Govern- 
ment to those with large families. With the help of 
the factories or public services concerned, children of 
workers and government employees who fall ill can 
go to the nearby medical stations or receive treat- 
ment at the pediatrics section of a hospital. 

- Attention has also been given to the cultural life 
and sports activities of workers and government func- 
tionaries. Apart from wiping out illiteracy and boost- 
ing suplementary education, the Government has set 
up bookstalls, libraries and clubs at public services 
and factories. The bookstalls and libraries, which 

COO 



draw large number of readers, have helped effectively 
in raising the political, cultural and technical stan- 
dards of the workers and functionaries. The Club acti- 
vities and physical culture and sports movement 
are spreading widely. 

AM the above-mentioned measures are leading 
north Viet Nam toward a new life : labour, progress; 
good health and happiness. 



IV. PRICES REDUCED, PEOPLE'S PURCHASING 
POWER INCREASED 

The continuous reduction of prices has led to a 
steady increase of the real incomes of working people. 
The Viet Nam Lao Dong Party and the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam Government have constantly 
endeavoured to stabilize and gradually reduce the 
prices of consumer goods. This rather complicated 
struggle has been waged in conditions not always 
favourable, because in the recent years north Viet 
Nam's economy still included the capitalist sector 
which was not yet transformed, especially in com- 
merce. A number of capitalists sought by every means 
to raise the prices of goods by their hoarding and 
speculative activities. 

Moreover, production in general was still low and 
in the production of consumer goods, the reduction of 
costs was not yet carried out well. 

In such conditions, the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party 
and the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Govern- 
ment took effective measures to cut the prices of 
consumer goods. 

Taking 100 as an index for 1957, the retail price of 
10 kinds of consumer goods at the main markets 
dropped to 89.2% in 1959. 

101 



This explains why the people's consumption has 
constantly increased in the past years. From 1955 to 
1959, per head consumption rose by 66%. 

Each inhabitant in north Viet Nam spent 54.92 
dong on necessities in 1955, 78.82 dong in 1956, 
88.25 dong in 1957, 87.70 dong in 1958 and 91,31 
dong in 1959. 



V. PEOPLE'S HEALTH 

Under French domination, there were very few 
public health establishments in north Viet Nam. 
T heir number did not exceed 78 at the restoration of 
peace in 1954. By 1959, however, 185 establishments 
had been set up, catering for nearly 20,000 patients. 
Now there is one hospital bed for every 800 sick 
people as against one for 3,500 in 1939. 

Many new hospitals have been set up and old ones 
provided with modern equipment supplied as aid by 
brother countries. 

The regime of treatment at the hospitals has also 
been considerable improved. The people, especially 
the labouring people who could with difficulty afford 
a hospital-bed in case of sickness in the old days now 
enjoy careful examinations and good treatment. 
According to their income, patients under treatment 
have to pay only part of the hospital fees. Many are 
exempted. 

A medical network has been set up throughout 
north Viet Nam, from the populous delta to the 
remotest mountainous regions. Almost all districts 
are now provided with dispensaries, while 1,335 
medical establishments have been set up in various 
villages. 

A considerable number of medical workers have 
been trained. Last year, north Viet Nam had 2,313 
such workers including nearly 2,000 doctors and 

102 



middle and highly qualified medical workers. There 
are some 10,000 midwives and nurses, as against only 
102 medical workers in both north and central Viet 
Nam in 1939, which was one medical worker for 
every 156,000 people. 

Besides skilled medical workers there are some 
100,000 hygiene workers engaged in promoting pre- 
ventive measures among the people. Moreover, thou- 
sands of Eastern medical workers are also taking part 
in the protection of the people's health. 

The Vietnamese are gradually eliminating common 
diseases left behind by the former French colonial 

2 3 13 




5 79 



1955 19 57 1959 

Number of doctors, physicians and chemists. 



103 



regime which caused great danger to their race, such 
as malaria, trachoma, venereal diseases, tuberculosis, 
leprosy, and so on. 

Hundreds of qualified medical workers and tens of 
thousands of other health workers have been trained 
in combating malaria. 

As a result, the number of malaria-stricken 
people has been gradually reduced. Cases of death 
by malaria are no longer frequent. More than 17,000 
peasants affected by trachoma have been cured. Over 
one million people have received examinations for 
tuberculosis, while almost all children up to 15 years 
of age have been given anti-T.B. inoculations this 
year. Up to 80 per cent of people affected by T. B. 
have been cured. 

Venereal diseases in particular have been 
eliminated. 

New surgical -sections such as those for operations 
of bone and brain have been set up in various 
hospitals. 

In 1959, 115,362 operations were performed. 

For the first time in Viet Nam, medical workers 
have succeeded in many case's 'of heart operation. . 

Traditional "Eastern medicine is being developed 
and is being applied according to a new scientific 
method. 

The Government has granted the people a great 
quantity of medicine: over 89 million anti-malaria 
pills, 136 kilos of symptomycin to cure trachoma, and 
nearly 88 million anti-tuberculosis pills. In the condi- 
tions of a still poor country like Viet Nam, these 
figures demonstrate the tremendous efforts of the 
Government. The production of medicines of common 
use has increased twentyfold compared with 1939, 
and over fiftyfold for pills. 

Under the motto of preventing diseases as the main 
task, medical work in the Democratic Republic of 

104 



Viet Nam aims at eliminating diseases. Under this 
motto, wide campaigns for preventing diseases have 
been launched such as the « three clean » campaign 
(clean food, clean lodging, clean drinking), the 
« three kill » campaign (kill flies, mosquitoes, and 
rats), and the campaign for « clean villages, good 
ricefields» and « clean cities, good meadows », which 
closely combine preventive hygiene measures with 
production work. 

In various enterprises and mines, measures to 
ensure hygiene and labour safety for the workers 
have been adopted. 

Many dangerous epidemics such as cholera and 
small pox which, under French domination, took 
heavy toll of human beings have been eliminated. 

1937, 10,495 people in north Viet Nam died of 
cholera. In Hanoi alone, 13 per cent of the population 
suffered from small pox in 1952. In the countryside, 
where there was not even one epidemic prevention 
establishment, the number of victims was alarmingly 
high. 

However, thanks to the particular concern of the 
Viet Nam Lao Dong Party and Democratic Republic 
of Viet Nam Government and the care of the medical 
workers, we have over recent years, through the still 
young hygiene and disease prevention network, the 
above-mentioned dangerous epidemics have been 
basically eliminated. No case of cholera has occurred 
since 1955, no small pox since 1958. This year, polyo- 
myelitis has also been checked and tens of thousands 
of children have been given preventive medicines. 

The protection of health of pregnant mothers and 
babies was almost completely neglected under French 
domination. Infant death rate was very high. In 
Hanoi, 1,505 out of 4,750 — that is 21 per cent — 
babies under one-year of age died in 1937. Under 
French domination the average infant death rate of 
babies of this same age group was 30 per cent. 

105 



Under the new regime, thanks to the developing 
health service, the death rate of expectant women in 
the countryside in 1959 fell by nine tenths, while 
infant death rate decreased by nearly the same rate 
compared with the French colonial days. 

Thanks to the aforesaid measures of protecting the 
people's health, the death rate among the people has 
considerably decreased. The rapid growth of the popu- 
lation in north Viet Nam is largely due to this work. 









106 



THE NEW CULTURE 



The Vietnamese nation possesses a culture dating 
back to ancient times, but under nearly a century of 
French colonial rule, cultural development was 
stifled. 

With the August Revolution which liberated the 
Vietnamese nation, Vietnamese national culture was 
liberated too. Since then it has shown definite pro- 
gress. The Vietnamese people have won back freedom 
of education and the right to the inheritance of their 
national culture. In the fifteen years of the present 
people's regime, Vietnamese culture has overcome 
many difficulties and has achieved results of which 
we can be proud. 



I. EDUCATION 

Anti-illiteracy and supplementary education. 

Speaking of Viet Nam's liberation under the people's 
regime, the movement for mass education must be 
noted in the first place. It is the most outstanding 
achievement of Viet Nam's new culture. 

107 



Under French domination, the majority of workers, 
peasants and their children were deprived of educa- 
tion. 90 per cent of the people were illiterate. The 
Indochinese Communist Party then working under- 
ground, took the initiative in setting up the Associa- 
tion for the Diffusion of the National Language. The 
colonialists and feudalists, in deadly fear of our 
people receiving education, created innumerable diffi- 
culties for the Association, thereby limiting its 
efficiency. 

Only after the establishment of the people's regime, 
did the anti-illiteracy movement have the opportunity 
to develop and it flourished on an unprecedented 
scale. On September 3, 1945, one day after the pro- 
clamation of the Provisional Government of the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, President Ho Chi 
Minh submitted for approval by the Government 
Council a proposal to launch the offensive against 
ignorance. 

The Mass Education Movement spread with great 
rapidity throughout the country. After a little more 
than one year, there were over three million people 
attending literacy-courses with one hundred thousand 
teachers, apart from the many hundreds of thousands 
of people who joined in campaigning and arranging 
class-room for these courses. In the period prior to 
the nation-wide resistance, two and a half million 
people were freed from illiteracy. 

In the Resistance, despite French bombing of 
schools, raids, killing and arrest of teachers and 
pupils of the Mass Education Movement, our people s 
love for study was not abated. These slogans were 
raised : « To study is to resist », and « The front kills 
the invaders, the rear annihilates ignorance ». 

Literacy-courses were developed not only in the 
free zones and the guerilla-held areas, but also deep 
in the temporarily occupied zones, 

108 



In the nine years of the Resistance War and after 
overcoming great difficulties, about eight million 
people in the country were freed from illiteracy. 

After the restoration of peace in 1954 and the 
liberation of the North the sphere of activity of the 
Mass Education Movement expanded broadly. The 
Viet Nam Lao Dong Party and the Government put 
forward the task of basically wiping out illiteracy in 
north Viet Nam within a period of three years (1956- 
1958), among people from 12 to 50 years of age. The 
Mass Education Movement drew in large masses of 
people. Among the enthusiastic students were elderly 
people, such as 121 years old Vi Van Nang of Nghe 
An province, and disabled men, such as Luong Ngoi 
of the Thai minority group in Dien Bien Phu region. 

In 1958, the last year of the Three-Year Plan for the 
Elimination of Illiteracy, the Mass Education Move- 
ment showed a very efficient and lively development. 
In many localities, it was carried out under the 
watch-words of «Make the rice green and people 
literate » and « Good in Autum Cultivation, ardent 
in anti-illiteracy ». At first, some villages, then whole 
districts emulated with one another to wipe out illite- 
racy. By the end of 1958, all cities and provinces in 
the Delta and midland regions in north Viet Nam 
fulfilled their literacy-programmes by more than 90 
per cent. Hanoi in particular held the highest rate 
with 97 per cent of the people from 8 to 50 years of 
age in the City proper and from 12 to 50 years of age 
in the suburbs. 

The task of basically wiping out illiteracy in north 
Viet Nam has been fulfilled. This is a great achieve- 
ment, and a mark of the superiority of the socialist 
regime in the North over the regime in the South, 
where the majority of the working people are still 
illiterate. 

Following the basic elimination of illiteracy, the 
problem of supplementary education emerges as the 

109 



leading task of educational work. Supplementary 
education courses already existed in the Resistance. 
However, the development of these courses became 
strong only after the restoration of peace. At present 
a high-tide of the supplementary educational move- 
ment is running. In the first six months of 1959 alone, 
the number of students of various courses reached 
the following figures: 1st degree — 1,284,570 stu- 
dents; 2nd degree — 45,619 students; 3rd degree — 
1,689 students. 

Thanks to the solicitude of the Viet Nam Lao Dong 
Party and the Government, the revolutionary ardour 
of the people and the self-devotion of literary-workers, 
the Movements for Wiping Out Illiteracy and for 
Supplementary Education in the Democratic Republic 
of Viet Nam have led to many achievements which 
the thousands of years-old feudal regime and the 
nearly one century-old French colonial regime failed 
to make. Illiteracy in north Viet Nam today is a thing 
of the past. 

General education. General education in Viet Nam 
under French colonial rule had the purpose of training 
a number of petty functionaries for the colonial admi- 
nistration and according to a backward, anti-national 
and anti-scientific program of study. Each province, 
or at most several districts, possessed a 6-year 
general educational school. Strict regulations on 
school-age of the pupils, high school-fees, hard living 
conditions and so on, prevented the children of 
peasants and workers from attending school. 

With the establishment of the people's regime, the 
old general educational system was for the first time 
changed. This work was just beginning when the 
nation-wide Resistance War broke out. Nevertheless 
the educational reform carried out in 1950 wrought 
a deep change in general education, in regard to 
organization, programme of study, methods of teach- 
ing and the compilation of text-books. The 10-year 

110 



general educational system has been enforced, com- 
prising three stages : the first' stage lasts four years, 
the second and third stages last three years each. 
A systematic programme of study covers the three 
stages, each of them being the continuation of the 
other and not separated from it as was the educa- 
tional system of the former regime. 

Worthy of special notice is the educational reform 
of 1950, which introduced a new content in keeping 
with the spirit of the people's regime. The guiding 
watchwords, « national, scientific and popular », 
govern the program of study. The content and 
methods of teaching are aimed at educating the 
pupils in the love of labour, the fatherland, the 
people, science and collectivity and the combination 
between study and practice. In the Resistance, 
students of general educational schools constituted 
an important force participating in political and 
social activities. 

After the restoration of peace, the task of general 
education is multiple. On the one hand it has to take 
over and transform the educational organization left 
behind by the colonialists in the former occupied 
zones to bring it in line with the general system. On 
the other hand it must develop in all fields in order 
to meet the new requirements. In the 1959-60 acade- 
mic year, the number of students in general educa- 
tional schools in north Viet Nam reached 1,522,200, 
the majority of whom came from the families of 
working people. Compared with the former French 
regime the number of students in second degree 
schools alone is now 12 times more and that in third 
degree schools is 40 times more. 

On an average, there are 11 students to every 
hundred inhabitants. If we compare this figure with 
1939, the peak year of educational development under 
French rule when there were in Viet Nam only 302,500 
students in general schools, this shows a very rapid 
development. 

Ill 



1,522, 200 



716. 100 



3Q2.500 

1939-40 1955-56 1959-60 

Number of students 
(general education) 



6,oa? 



7 IJtMl 



1939-40 1955-56 1959-60 

Number of students 
(higher education) 



The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Government 
has shown particular concern for the development of 
general education in the mountainous areas. Under 
imperial and feudal rule, there was in the whole of 
the Viet Bac Autonomous Region only one secondary 
school in Lang Son province. Today things are quite 
different under the Democratic Republic ; for instance 
in Hai Ninh province, close to the Viet Nam-China 
border, there are seven schools of the second degree of 
general education. Under the French regime, national 
minority groups did not possess scripts of their own. 
Today, the Ministry of Education has carried out 
research and helped the Thai nationals to set up a 
Thai script and the Tay, Nung, and Meo nationals 
to set up their own scripts. An intermediate Teachers' 
School has been established since 1953 to train 
teachers for the national minority people. 

Despite financial difficulties, the Government has 
granted scholarship to poor students. Five per cent of 
students in second degree schools and 10 per cent of 
students in third degree schools have been granted 
scholarship. The rate of students in the mountainous 
regions who receive scholarship is five per cent for the 
first degree and 10 per cent for the second degree. 



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In the socialist schools, a new. kind of relationship 
exists between pupils, their parents and teachers. 
There are in the schools of today no signs of caning 
or scolding as in the past. Teachers keep in close 
touch with parents to report on the situation of study 
and behaviour of the students and to combine their 
efforts for the benefit of education. Solidarity and 
mutual assistance between students are shown more 
and more. 

The new general educational system has enabled 
the students to achieve brilliant results. In the 
1959-1960 academic year, pass-rates are 97 per cent in 
end-of-term examination of second degree schools 
and 86 per cent in third degree schools. Students who 
graduate from third degree schools after completing 
the 10-year general educational schooling, possess 
the standard knowledge enabling them either to enrol 
in higher colleges or to serve in the various branches 
of the administration. 

Intermediate vocational schools. Already at the 
time of the Resistance, intermediate vocational schools 
were opened to meet partially the needs for staff, 
mainly in the health and educational services. 

The liberation of north Viet Nam has provided 
further opportunities for the development of interme- 
diate vocational schools. From their modest organiza- 
tion in the Resistance, intermediate vocational schools 
have been expanded, forming the Teachers' School, 
the Agricultural and Forestry School, the Transport 
and Communications School, the Postal Workers' 
School, the Medical Workers' School, the Fine Arts 
School, the Handicraft School, the Musicians' School, 
the Foreign Languages School, the Economic and 
Financial School, and the School for Teachers in the 
Mountainous Areas. Attendance at these schools has 
rapidly developed. From 2,752 students in 1955-1956, 
enrolment reached 16,422 in 1959-1960. The methods 
applied in these schools are directed to the close com- 

8 DR 1 13 



blnation of theory and practice in order to enable 
the students to catch up with technique following 
graduation and during their service. 

Higher Education in Viet Nam. Higher education 
in Viet Nam is relatively young. In hard conditions 
in the Resistance, the Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam maintained the functioning of 
two colleges, the Medicine College and the Pharmacy 
College, to meet the urgent needs of the Resistance. 
The number of students in both colleges was 400, 
before the cessation of hostilities. 

In October 1954, when the Government freed the 
City, the Hanoi University was attended by about 
800 students in its various sections, medicine, phar- 
macy, law, literature and pedagogy. Before it left 
Hanoi, the enemy abducted a large number of 
teachers and students to the South and took away 
the equipment of laboratories, to create difficulties for 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Higher 
Education. 

However, only twenty days after the liberation of 
Hanoi, the Government opened the colleges of medi- 
cine and of pharmacy and provided them with labora- 
tories and libraries for efficient research work and 
study. 

Over the past few years, higher education has 
steadily developed to meet the requirements of 
national reconstruction. Many colleges have been 
opened — the General University, the Polytechnical 
College, the Teachers' College, the Agricultural and 
Forestry College and the Economic and Financial 
Central College. At present there are eight colleges, 
comprising fifty major sections. Enrolment in these 
colleges has rapidly increased. In the academic year 
1959-1960, there were 8,087 university students in 
north Viet Nam. In 1939, the peak year of educational 
development under French rule, in the whole of Indo- 
China there were only 700 students. The present 

m 



figure marks an increase of 1 1 times in north Viet 
Nam alone. The teaching staff has also developed 
from 79 in 1955 to 900 in 1959-1960. 

Admission of students with regard to their family 
back-ground to various colleges in Viet Nam is 
completely different from what it was under French 
rule. Formerly only children of well-to-do families 
could go to the university. Today, children of 
peasants, workers and government officials account 
for 70-80 per cent of university students. Since the 
August Revolution, an outstanding achievement has 
been made by the teachers in cooperation with scienti- 
fic workers, in the use of the Vietnamese language for 
the teaching of various subjects in the university to 
replace completely the French language. This is quite 
different from the situation in south Viet Nam where 
foreign languages, such as English and French, are 
the main languages used in teaching. 

In the process of its development since the restora- 
tion of peace, higher education in Viet Nam has 
received energetic support from the Soviet Union, 
China and other socialist countries in documents of 
study and laboratory equipment as well as their 
experiences on the organization of higher colleges. 
In addition, these fraternal countries have played 
host to many thousands of Vietnamese students 
studying there. 



II. THE CULTURAL LIFE OF THE PEOPLE 

Along with the development of education, the 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
has put forward many methods aimed at raising the 
cultural standard of the working people. 

Most prominent of these is the establishment pf 
clubs in factories and cultural houses in the country- 
side. After office-hours each day, workers come to 



115 



these clubs for recreation or to attend lectures dealing 
with the current situation and scientific problems, to 
develop their political and scientific knowledge and to 
improve their technical level. Clubs and cultural 
houses are also the sites for cultural entertainments 
of a light and lively educational character. A mass 
movement for participation in cultural activities has 
started in north Viet Nam countryside, giving it an 
atmosphere of vivid and heartening activity* 

During the 80 years of so-called « civilizing 
mission », the French colonialists established in Viet 
Nam .only four libraries. Since liberation, library 
development has become widespread. The Central 
National Library has received fresh supplies of tens 
of thousands of books. A scientific library under the 
State Scientific Research Board has recently been set 
up. There is at present in north Viet Nam a network 
of 37 provincial and city reading-rooms, thousands of 
libraries containing text-books for general and techni- 
cal education in schools and government offices, and 
many thousands of other reading-rooms and 
collective-reading groups organized among the people 
under the guidance of local cultura lworkers. 

After the liberation of north Viet Nam, the Govern- 
ment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam esta- 
blished the Historic Museum and the Revolutionary 
Museum. Valuable documents and exhibits on history, 
the Vietnamese revolution and the Resistance, have 
been collected and classified for exhibition to visitors. 
The Viet Nam People's Army possesses a special 
museum. In addition, positive results have been 
achieved by the localities in the keeping-up and repair 
of scenic and historic spots which exist in large 
numbers in our country. 

A network of Cinemas has been organized in north 
Viet Nam. In 1955, there were in the whole country 
84 mobile film-showing teams, cinemas and open-air 
projection teams. In 1959, there were 198 such units. 

116 



In the same year, the cinematographic service gave 
film-show to audiences totalling over 53,245,299. On 
an average each inhabitant attended film-showings 
three and a half times during the year. In Hanoi, the 
average was 16 times for each inhabitant. 

In the cultural life of the people, one must note the 
achievements in publication work* In the Resistance, 
despite many difficulties, publication of books, news- 
papers and documents was organized, timely meeting 
the needs of the Resistance. Works of great value 
such as the Political Report, Readjusting the Style of 
Work by President Ho Chi Minh, the Resistance Will 
Win by Truong Chinh, etc. were published during 
the Resistance. The publication service also initiated 
the distribution of booklets, which, owing to their size, 
were easily carried, hidden and distributed by cadres 
working in the rarely occupied zones. 

After the liberation of north Viet Nam, publication 
work won the opportunity to develop rapidly. There 
are at present in the country 18 publishing houses. 
The autonomous regions have publishing houses of 
their own, which work on printing materials written 
in the scripts of the brotherly nationalities belonging 
to the community. In the period of five years, from 
1955 to 1959, the total number of books published 
increased three times : 



DATE 


ANNUAL PRODUCTION 


Titles 


Copies 


1955 
1959 


572 
1,086 


5,658,626 
17,737,374 



Compared with 1939 (1,626,000 copies) the total 
number of publications increased 1 1 times. Many 



1!7 



valuable works on Marxism-Leninism, science, phi- 
losophy, literature and history have been published. 
Foreign literary works have also been widely 
popularized. 

At the International Book Exhibition in Leipzig in 
1959, the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam publica- 
tion branch was awarded prizes, including a gold 
medal for printing materials of the Resistance. 

The press which formerly served mainly the regime 
of the imperialists and the feudalists, after the 
August Revolution completely changed in content and 
powerfully developed in quantity. The newspapers Co 
Giai Phong (Liberation Standard), Su That (Truth), 
Cuu Quoc (National Salvation), and many others 
have made valuable contributions to mobilizing and 
organizing the masses in the defence of the young 
Democratic Republic and the fruit of the Vietnamese 
revolution. 

Even after the hostilities spread throughout the 
country, the press continued the tradition of the 
revolution and served the cause of national libera- 
tion. Apart from newspapers published at the site of 
the central government, at various zones and pro- 
vinces, there was a great variety of wall-newspapers 
and bulletins printed with clay, stone and other 
materials, or hand-written published by units of the 
army and in the villages. Besides the newspapers 
published in the Vietnamese language there were 
newspapers published in the French language for the 
French soldiers. 

Since 1954, the press has powerfully developed its 
action in the service of the revolution. The Viet Nam 
Lao Dong Party and the Government have paid 
constant attention to creating favourables conditions 
for the activities of the press. 

The press has received the support of the broad 
masses of the people. The paper Nhan Dan (People), 
organ of the Central Committee of the Viet Nam Lao 

m 



Dong Party, in 1959 had a daily circulation of 72,000 
copies. The magazine Hoc Tap (Study), theoretical 
and political organ of the Viet Nam Lao Dong Party 
and the magazine Problems of Peace and Socialism, 
published in the Vietnamese language, have become 
a necessity for cadres and the people. 

By the end of 1959, there were in the whole of north 
Viet Nam 141 newspapers, magazines and periodicals. 
Besides those published in the Vietnamese language, 
there are many others issued in foreign languages 
(Chinese, Russian, English, French, Esperanto). 

The Radio and the broadcasting system are very 
important media of the cultural life of the people in 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. Radio The 
Voice of Viet Nam is broadcasting on two systems 
using wave-lengths stronger than formerly. Besides 
the transmissions in the Vietnamese language, this 
Radio also transmits daily programs in foreign 
languages. Special programs are daily broadcast to 
listeners in south Viet Nam. The programs of The 
Voice of Viet Nam, cover many fields, such as litera- 
ture, music, education, hygiene, etc. There are also 
special programs for various sections of the people: 
workers, peasants, youth, women, intellectuals, mino- 
rity nationals, etc. Children enjoy special attention 
among the listeners to the Radio. They are served 
with short and bright stories bearing an educational 
character and songs suitable for their age. 

Besides the Radio station near the central govern- 
ment there are in cities and provinces special broad- 
casting networks. The number of these local networks 
has reached 42. 



III. SCIENCE 

Through many thousands of years of national 
building, the Vietnamese people have created for 
themselves a necessary science. As early as the Ly 



119 



dynasty, their ancestors knew how to apply science 
to the building of the network of dykes in the delta 
to protect ricefields. In military science, the book 
First Military Notions by Tran Quoc Tuan was a 
worthy document. Other scholars such as the histo- 
rian Phan Huy Chu and the physician Lan Gng 
handed down very precious scientific research works. 

But the century- old feudal regime and the French 
colonial regime hamstrung scientific progress in Viet 
Nam. When the Vietnamese people seized power, they 
inherited a very poor scientific legacy from the French 
colonialists. No scientific research institute worthy of 
the name existed, very scarce the worthy scientific 
research documents, and very few the well-known 
scientists. After having once seized power, the Viet- 
namese people had to fight against the second French 
imperialist aggression. 

In the very hard conditions of the Resistance War, 
scientists and workers made sulphuric acid and many 
other chemicals as well as various arms : grenade, 
mortar, bazooka, etc., serving the needs of national 
defence very efficiently. Physicians and chemists made 
great efforts in producing various necessary and 
cheap medicaments to serve the people, chiefly the 
army. 

Since the successful Border Campaign (1950), the 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam has been linked to 
the socialist camp, and its science has come in touch 
with that of brother countries. Vietnamese scientists 
have eagerly studied and creatively applied Michurin's 
theory on biology, Pavlov's theory on physiology, and 
Filatov's theory on medical science. They have pro- 
duced penicillin, anti-small pox dry vaccine and got 
good results in the application of the Filatov method 
to the treatment of diseases. 

The various branches of social science, chiefly 
literature and. history, have made worthy efforts to 
serve the common struggle to liberate the people. 



Since the restoration of peace, north Viet Nam has 
advanced to the socialist revolution stage, and scien- 
tific activities have intensified. 

The State Scientific Research Board has been set 
up recently. 

Units under its direct supervision include the Social 
Scientific Committee, Technical Scientific Committee, 
Basic Scientific Committee, Medical Committee, His- 
tory Department, Literary Department, Economic De- 
partment, Philosophical Section, etc. Other research 
departments such as the Agricultural and Fores- 
try Department and the Technical Scientific Commis- 
sions in the Ministries and the Higher Colleges are 
important scientific research bases. In the provinces, 
technical committees help lead scientific and techni- 
cal works. The Society to Popularize Science and 
Technique and the review Elementary Science are 
welcomed by the cadres and people. 

Progress has been made in the natural science 
branches. 

In medical science, many kinds of medicaments, 
which could not be produced formerly, have now been 
produced. Besides the Western medicine branch, the 
Eastern medicine research Department was set up, 
having the task of closely co-operating with Western 
medicine, and studying the use of various kinds of 
plants and herbs as medicaments suitable for the 
tropical climate of Viet Nam. Many worthy research 
works concerning tuberculosis, surgery, and ear, nose 
and throat have rendered good services to the protec- 
tion of the people's health. 

Agricultural science is developing and serving the 
production of millions of working people. The 
peasants' initiatives in culture have been studied* 
summed up and popularized. 

Many inventions have been devised to accelerate 
industrial production. 

121 



The outstanding feature of the scientific activities 
in the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is the close 
link between theory and practice, and science serving 
production and the people's livelihood. 

In social sciences also, many achievements have 
been scored. 

The History Institute has completed a number of 
valuable researches into Viet Nam's history. The 
Literature Institute has systematically carried out 
researches in literature. 

In every field of scientific activity, Viet Nam has 
gained the warm assistance of the socialist countries, 
first and foremost the Soviet Union and China. Many 
agreements for scientific and technical exchange 
between Viet Nam and other socialist countries have 
been signed. The Soviet Union, China and other 
socialist countries have received a number of Viet- 
namese cadres and students who went to study at the 
organs of scientific research of their countries. Early 
in March 1960, the Communist Party and Govern- 
ment of the Soviet Union sent to Viet Nam a delega- 
tion of the Soviet Union Academy of Science to help 
train cadres, organize services, work out long-term 
plans for the development of science, etc. Science in 
Viet Nam will certainly advance rapidly. 



IV. LITERATURE AND ART 

Viet Nam's literature and art have an age-old fine 
tradition. The Vietnamese people gave birth to 
Nguyen Du, a talented poet at the end of the 18th 
and the beginning of the 19th century, author of Kim 
Van Kieu ballad of 3,000 verses of unparalleled 
beauty. In the traditional culture of the national mi- 
norities also there are masterpieces. But under the 
former regime, literature and art were appropriated 
by the ruling classes to serve their selfish interests. 



12? 



The August Revolution has given back to the masses 
literature and art which are now the property of the 
people to serve their interests. 

Since the August Revolution, a creative wind has 
blown into Viet Nam's literature and art. Many 
valuable works have been created. Poems written in 
classic or modern form express the fine and healthy 
feelings of a heroic people in the sacred war of Resis- 
tance, as well as in the socialist revolution in the 
North and in the present struggle for national reuni- 
fication. A number of poets of national minorities 
have appeared. Their poems express the mountain 
compatriots' feelings which are sincere, clear and full 
of patriotic warmth. 

At present, a bright star in the Vietnamese firma- 
ment is To Huu, author of the famous poems Viet Bac, 
an epic on the Vietnamese Resistance, and of the 
poems warm with the spirit of struggle for the build- 
ing of the North and for national reunification. To 
Huu's poems are a fine example of Vietnamese revolu- 
tionary poetry. 

The Vietnamese people like to read novels such as 
Storm-troops by Nguyen Dinh Thi, the Buffalo by 
Nguyen Van Bong, The Eyes by Nam Cao, Mining 
Area by Vo Huy Tarn and The Village That Wouldn't 
Die by Nguyen Ngoc, etc. 

Poems and songs created by the masses are rich 
in content and are in great number. 

We have translated many valuable literary works 
of other countries such as And Quiet Flows the Don, 
Virgin Soil Upturned by Solokhov, How the Steel 
was Tempered by Ostrovsky, Storm by Tsao Yu, Les 
Miserables by Victor Hugo... 

Viet Nam's plastic art has a healthy content and a 
style quite original, particularly the lacquered 
pictures. Viet Nam paintings displayed at the Plastic 

123 



Art Exhibition of socialist countries at Moscow in 
1959 were warmly praised. Many fine works of sculp- 
ture are rich in content. 

Song and Dance ensembles of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam were set up during the Resis- 
tance War and have developed strongly since the res- 
toration of peace. 

The most outstanding achievement is to have 
restored Viet Nam art traditions and heritage, 
studied and adapted folk songs and dances from 
mountainous regions and the delta, and to have 
raised them to a fairly high artistic level. The State 
Art Ensemble of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
won the attention and applause of a large public at 
the World Youth Festival as well as during its tour of 
the socialist countries and of India and Burma in 
1959. The Rong Chieng dance was awarded a gold 
medal at the 1959 World Youth Festival in Vienna. 
Apart from the State Art Ensemble there exists a great 
number of very active amateur troupes from Govern- 
ment offices, enterprises, farms, co-operatives, 
schools, etc. 

Music is an art extensively developed in our coun- 
try. Many songs have been composed to serve the 
revolutionary struggle of the people. In 1959, the first 
symphony orchestra of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam was established marking an important step 
forward in Viet Nam's musical life. The World 
Youth Festival held in Moscow in 1957 awarded a 
gold medal to Manh Thang, the outstanding player 
of the «one string instrument » uniquely Vietnamese. 

The Vietnamese people have organized a new art- 
istic section, the film studios, which saw the light 
of day during the Resistance in the jungle. This 
branch has produced many newsreels highlighting 
the heroic and arduous struggle waged by the people 
during the Resistance and in the period of peaceful 
construction. The newsreel Fighting Drought was 
awarded an honorary diploma in 1957 at Ihe Interna- 

V24 



tional film Festival held at Karlovy Vary in Czecho- 
slovakia and the documentary film The Bac Hung Hai 
hydraulic system was awarded a gold medal at the 
1959 International Film Festival in Moscow. Recently 
Viet Nam's studios have started shooting feature 
films. The first of these titled By the Common River 
dealing with the Vietnamese people's struggle for 
national reunification has won the appreciation of 
public opinion at home and abroad. 

Apart from an up-to-date studio, there has been set 
up the first moving picture school to train film direc- 
tors and actors. 

The Classical Theatre, Popular Theatre, Reformed 
Theatre, Spoken Theatre, Circus and Puppet Theatre 

are also welcomed by the Vietnamese people. 

While literature and art blossom in north Viet Nam, 
in the South they are stifled and contaminated by the 
reactionary U. S.-Diem regime. American pornogra- 
phic literature and films invade south Viet Nam. The 
Ngo Dinh Diem authorities brutally terrorize the 
progressive writers and artistes who stand for peace 
and national reunification and forbid works of art 
having a healthy content. However, popular and 
democratic art and literature in south Viet Nam 
cannot be suppressed. Lately, many revolutionary 
literary works in the South have found their way 
to north Viet Nam. In this connection, particular 
mention should be made of the poems in the selection 
Songs of the South which has just been awarded a 
prize in the contest organized by the weekly National 
Reunification as having voiced the indomitable spirit 
of the Southern people against the U. S-Diem regime. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam pays great attention to the problem of 
exchanging artistic and literary works with foreign 
countries, first of all with the socialist countries. 

125 



Under the Party's leadership, the army of writers 
and artistes have stood the test during the Resistance 
War and in the present period and are now streng- 
thened by new forces coming from the toiling people. 



V. PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS 

This branch has developed widely and powerfully 
since the liberation of the North. 

The Party and people have paid attention to resto- 
ring and expanding sports fields and swimming 
pools. In August 1958, the Hang Day Stadium in 
Hanoi was completed with a capacity of 25,000 seats. 
Many districts and villages have built small size 
stadiums. In addition to the swimming pools which 
have been overhauled, an up-to-date swimming pool 
at Haiphong is being built. 

In sports good results have been scored : in 1959. 
Vietnamese athletes smashed nine Indo-China 
swimming records in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 
metres and 1,500 metres free style for men and women 
and 100 metres crawl for women. In the army athletics 
and sports contests held in Leipzig in 1958 between 
twelve socialist countries, seven Vietnamese athletes 
broke records. 

A physical culture movement of mass character is 
now taking shape and developing at a fairly quick 
tempo. At the end of 1958, over the whole of north 
Viet Nam, there were 300,000 people practising physi- 
cal culture. However in 1959 this figure jumped to 
two million. The athletes taking part in various 
contests numbered 186,313. The physical culture move- 
ment is strong in the schools, army units, government 
offices, enterprises and villages. 

The powerful development of the physical culture 
and sports movement has contributed to the defence 
and building of socialism, the acceleration of produc- 
tion and the close solidarity between Viet Nam and 
other countries. 

m 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE REUNIFICATION 

OF THE FATHERLAND, AN URGENT TASK 

OF THE VIETNAMESE PEOPLE 



I. VIET NAM IS ONE NATION 

For ages, Viet Nam was a unified country, a mono- 
lithic, steady bloc. On a common territory stretching 
from Lang Son to Ca Mau, the Vietnamese nation 
speaks a common language, for centuries has had 
common economic bonds, and shares a common 
culture. 

The imperialists and colonialists many times 
schemed to partition Viet Nam. Throughout their rule, 
the French colonialists purposely divided it into 
three parts : Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina. After 
March 9, 1945, the Japanese fascists continued the 
French obnoxious policy of 'divide and rule'. Both 
imperialism eventually failed. The National United 
Front, under the leadership of the Indochinese Com- 
munist Party rallied the broad masses of the people 
from the North to the South, successfully carried out 
the August Revolution and founded the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam, independent and unified. The 

127 



general election held all over Viet Nam at the begin- 
ning of 1946 once more bore witness to the unshakable 
unity of the Vietnamese nation. The Constitution 
approved by the National Assembly in winter 1946 
was that of the whole Vietnamese nation. 

Despite their ignominious defeat in 1945, the 
French colonialists returned as aggressors to Viet 
Nam. Once more they nursed the hope of partitioning 
the country. On one side, they entered into negotia- 
tions with the Government of the Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam, the only Government representative 
of the whole Vietnamese people and signed with it 
the March 6, 1946 Preliminary Convention. On the 
other, they founded the 'Autonomous Republic of 
Cochinchina' which was headed by a puppet Govern- 
ment acting as their willing tool in the implementa- 
tion of their scheme of aggression and division. At 
that time, President Ho Chi Minh declared : 

«Our compatriots of the South are Viet- 
namese citizens. Rivers may be dry, moun- 
tains may wear away, but this fact will never 
change. » 
Faced with the might of the Vietnamese people's 
unity in a eight to nine years long war of Resistance, 
all French schemes of division come to grief. 

The Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference in 
1954 recognized that Viet Nam is an independent and 
unified nation, the 17th parallel being only a provi- 
sional demarcation line, and not at all political 
boundary. 

The success achieved at the Geneva Conference 
was a great success of the Vietnamese people. It 
was the success of the will for independence and 
unity of a monolithic national bloc. 

128 




Anti-illiteracy movement welcomed throughout the country 



Housing settlements of the 

Nam Dinh weaving mill 

workers 





A kindergarten for workers' 
children 




The Hien Luong 

Bridge spanning the 

Ben Hai River 







Northern people struggling against the U. S.-Diem clique 
murderer of patriots in the Phu Loi concentration camp 



II. THE RESOLUTE AND PATIENT STRUGGLE 

FOR NATIONAL UNITY OF THE PEOPLE 

AND GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC 

REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 

After the Geneva Conference, the American impe- 
rialists and their henchmen, the Ngo Dinh Diem 
clique, deliberately schemed to permanently partition 
Viet Nam. Over these last six years, their scheme has 
become more and more apparent, and they have 
persisted in acting counter to the sacred will and 
aspiration of all Vietnamese from the North to the 
South, which is to achieve national reunification on 
the basis of independence and democracy. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam has ceaselessly shown its goodwill to achieve 
national reunification under the terms of the Geneva 
Agreements. Right from the beginning, it has made 
clear its position and attitude regarding the question 
of Viet Nam's unity. President Ho Chi Minh has 
stated that national reunification should be achieved 
on the basis of independence and democracy through 
peaceful means, as provided for by the Geneva Agree- 
ments, without coercion of one side by the other. The 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
was prepared to meet and discuss the settling of 
disputes by negotiation and mutual understanding to 
prepare for general elections with a view to national 
reunification. In order to pay due consideration to the 
different conditions in each zone, each local govern- 
ment would have the right to enact local laws in 
accordance with the special situation but not at 
variance with the common laws of the reunified State. 
Normal relations should be restored between the two 
zones, and democratic freedoms ensured for all orga- 
nizations and individuals standing for peace, unity 
and democracy. 

Prime Minister Pham Van Dong has sent numerous 
notes to the Southern authorities these last six years. 

129 



On June 6, 1955, the Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam declared its readiness to open 
the consultative Conference with the south Viet Nam 
authorities as provided for by the Geneva Agree- 
ments. On July 19, 1955, it sent a note to the Southern 
authorities, requesting them to appoint representa- 
tives to open negotiations with it, starting from July 
20, 1955, as provided for by the Geneva Agreements, 
in order to discuss the achievement of national reuni- 
fication through free general elections all over Viet 
Nam. 

But in order to put into effect the U. S. scheme of 
partitioning Viet Nam, of turning south Viet Nam 
into a U. S. colony, the Ngo Dinh Diem clique has 
rejected negotiations. They cynically declared that 
they do not recognize the Geneva Agreements. The 
whole world is aware that the Geneva Conference 
documents clearly state that they had the obligation 
to respect and abide by the signed agreements. In 
fact they had implemented, together with the French 
army, such provisions of the Agreements as the 
regrouping and transfer of troops. Such an act on 
the part of the Ngo Dinh Diem clique was evidence 
that they deliberately wanted to be U. S. servants and 
carry out the scheme of permanently partitioning the 
country, thus acting counter to the will of the Viet- 
namese nation. 

Nevertheless, the Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam has patiently and continuously 
shown its willingness to achieve national unity by 
peaceful means. On May 11, 1956, the Prime Minister 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, Pham Van 
Dong, again sent a note to the Southern authorities, 
proposing that both sides hold a conference to discuss 
general elections throughout Viet Nam. On the orders 
of U. S. imperialism, Ngo Dinh Diem turned a deaf 
ear to this proposal. 

In July 1957, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong 
again sent a note with a proposal to open negotia- 

130 



lions on the holding of a general election for national 
reunification and on the restoration of normal rela- 
tions between the two zones. 

The patient efforts of the Government of the 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
can be clearly seen particularly in its March, 1958, 
note to the Southern administration and to the coun- 
tries which were members of the Geneva Conference 
and to the countries who act on the International 
Commission, India, Poland and Canada. Concrete 
steps were put forward in the note to promote unity, 
such as the holding of negotiations on the reduction 
of the strength of both sides armies, and on trade- 
exchanges between the two zones. These steps aimed 
at restoring normal relations between the North and 
the South, thus creating favourable conditions for the 
achievement of national unity through free general 
elections. They were in keeping with the Vietnamese 
people's aspirations, but the Southern authorities 
turned down these proposals. Once more in December. 
1958, the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic 
of Viet Nam sent a note to the Southern administra- 
lion, proposing to reduce the strength of the armies 
of both zones, to cut down their military budgets, not 
to enlarge military bases or build new ones and to 
restore normal relations between the two zones. 

Over these last years, implementing the policy of 
the Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam, various ministries such as the Ministry of Com- 
munications and Port, the Ministry of Culture, the 
Ministry of Trade, the State Bank of Viet Nam 
successively sent notes to their counter-parts in the 
South, putting forward practical proposals to restore 
normal relations, such as cultural, trade, postal 
exchanges. 

The resolute stand of the Government of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam as regards national unity 
is but that of the Vietnamese nation itself. It will 
never change. Many concrete steps have been put 

131 



forth but years wear on and the country still remains 
divided. The U. S.-Diem clique has deliberately igno- 
red the most cherished aspiration of the entire people. 
Throughout these last six years they have gone 
further and futher along the path of prolonged parti- 
tion of the Fatherland and of turning the South of Viet 
Nam into a U. S. colony. 

True to the tradition of national solidarity, all the 
sections of the people of the North have closed their 
ranks in the Fatherland Front of Viet Nam founded 
in 1955, to struggle for the reunification of the 
Fatherland. 

Now the North is completely liberated from the 
imperialist and feudal yoke. But the South, under 
the rule of U. S. imperialism and the Ngo Dinh Diem 
clique, is still put to fire and sword. The Northern 
people always regard the struggle for national unity 
as their sacred task. They are fully aware of the 
necessity of building the North into a strong base in 
every respect to use it as a foundation for the suc- 
cessful struggle for national unity. As President Ho 
has put it, 

«The North is the foundation, the roots of 
the people's fighting force. Only if the foun- 
dation is strong, will the house be solid... 
Bringing strength and progress to the North 
is the most realistic way to influence the 
South. » 

Under the leadership of the Party and Government 
led by President Ho Chi Minh, the Northern people 
have unremittingly devoted their efforts to building 
the North and advancing toward socialism. They have 
been translating their will to struggle for national 
unity into actual deeds, every day, in every field, 
economic, cultural, and political. 

While building up the North, the Northern people 
have ceaselessly shown their strong determination to 
struggle against the U. S. Diem scheme of division. 

132 



All sections of the people of the North, all political 
parties as well as all people's organizations, closing 
their ranks in the Fatherland Front of Viet Nam, have 
been struggling continuously to lay bare the U. S.— 
Diem plot of sabotaging Viet Nam unity, to denounce 
them to world opinion, and to support the gallant 
revolutionary struggle of our Southern compatriots. 
There have been successive waves of struggle against 
U. S. imperialism and Diem over these last years. 
They have been very widespread ones. In January 
1959, millions of people everywhere held meetings 
and demonstrations in protest against the massacre 
at the Phu Loi concentration camp. In Hanoi alone, 
on January 25, 1959, 300,000 people turned out in the 
streets and took part in a protest march, demanding 
that the Southern authorities disband their concen- 
tration camps. Many people went into mourning for 
the Southern victims... Within a week, 500 delegations 
of people's representatives came to the headquarters 
of the International Commission and handed in 
protests against the massacres of Southern patriots 
by U.S. imperialism and Diem. Recently the Northern 
people have started the « sworn-brotherhood » move- 
ment with the populations of the Southern provinces. 
This movement is of deep significance in uniting the 
people of the two zones in the struggle for national 
unity. 

At the beginning of July 1960, there was a fresh 
and fierce wave of struggle against U. S. imperialism 
and Diem in the North. Everywhere, hundreds of 
thousands of people, millions of people demonstrated 
and demanded that U. S. imperialism quit south Viet 
Nam and protested against the cruel repression of 
Southern patriots by U. S. imperialism and Diem. 

Such an upsurge of the Northern people is a great 
source of inspiration for the Southern people in their 
struggle against the U.S. — Diem plot. At the same 
time, the building of a strong and prosperous North 
has instilled the Southern people with a firm belief in 

133 



the future achievement of national unity. The South- 
ern people always turn their thoughts toward the 
North and in spite of all acts of terrorism and repres- 
sion of U. S. imperialism and Diem, they are unremit- 
tingly resisting them and struggling for peace and 
unity. 



III. THE SOUTHERN PEOPLE'S STRUGGLE 
AGAINST THE ATTEMPTS OF THE IMPERIAL- 
IST AND DIEM, AGGRESSORS AND TRAITORS, 
TO PERMANENTLY PARTITION THE VIET- 
NAMESE TERRITORY AND TO SABOTAGE 
PEACE, AND UNITY IN VIET NAM 

Acting counter to the Vietnamese people's sacred 
aspiration for national unity, the Ngo Dinh Diem 
clique is going further and further along the path of 
criminal activities which aim, on the orders of U.S. 
imperialism, at partitioning the country and sabota- 
ging national reunification. 

The Ngo Dinh Diem administration in the South, 
representative of the most reactionary pro-American 
comprador capitalists and feudal landlords, is 
actually a tool fabricated and wielded by the U. S. 
imperialists. On the orders of U. S. imperialism, it 
has been sparing no efforts to prepare for war, to 
sabotage the Geneva Agreements, to sell out south 
Viet Nam to U. S. imperialism and raising the 
« March Northwards » slogan, in preparation for an 
aggression against the North and China. After 
brazenly stating his refusal to enter into negotiations 
on national reunification, Ngo Dinh Diem went to the 
length of clamouring in 1957 that :« the U.S. boun- 
daries extend to the 17th parallel. » 

With U.S. dollars Diem and his clique have been 
building military bases in the South, in other to sabo- 
tage national reunification and to carry out their plot 

!34 



of launching a new war. The U. S. imperialists have 
been granting Diem all possible military aid. From 
1954, U.S. military aid in the form of weapons has 
reached the considerable sum of 434,181,000 dollars. 
Although under the terms of the Geneva Agreements, 
introduction of fresh arms into Indo-China is strictly 
forbidden, the U. S. imperialists and Diem have 
ignored the ban. Hundreds of U. S. ships have been 
carrying hundreds of thousands of tons of weapons 
and war materials into south Viet Nam. In 1957 
alone, there were 109 such ships, and in 1958, no less 
than 114. 

The expansion of air and naval bases and the 
building of new ones by the Diem clique during these 
recent years supplies clearer and clearer evidence 
that on the U.S. imperialists' orders, they have been 
carrying out the plot of permanently partitioning Viet 
Nam and of transforming south Viet Nam into a U.S. 
military base. 

As regards air bases, there were only six airfields in 
the South at the cessation of hostilities. There are 
now no less than 46 of them. What is specially signi- 
ficant, they have been building an immense airstrip 
disguised under the name « Saigon — Bien Hoa 
autobahn ». 

As regards naval bases, the U.S. imperialists and 
Diem have been doing their utmost to expand them. 
The U. S. imperialists have spent 53,000,000 Southern 
piastres on repairing the Nha Be — Saigon Harbour 
so that men of war of large size can enter. U. S. naval 
advisers are directly in charge of the Nha Trang 
naval training centre. At the cessation of hostilities, 
there were only two naval bases in the South. Now 
there are many new ones such as Hoi An, Cape Saint 
Jacques and Qui Nhon, newly-built or improved. 

Moreover, and this is the most disturbing point, 
thousands of U. S. military personnel have been in- 
troduced into south Viet Nam under the signboard of 

135 



M.A. A.G. and T. E.R.M. At the cessation of hosti- 
lities, there were only 200 U. S. military personnel. 
Their present number is over 2,000. 

Thus, it is clear that U. S. imperialism has been 
doing everything in its power to build south Viet 
Nam into a U.S. important strategic military base, to 
turn it into a springboard to attack the north of Viet 
Nam and the socialist camp and to suppress Asian 
national independence movements. No wonder that 
Diem has deliberately turned down every proposal put 
forth by the Government of the Democratic Republic 
of Viet Nam with a view to achieving national unity. 

This U. S. and Diem's military scheme has repea- 
tedly been protested against and denounced by the 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
and the High Command of the Vietnamese people's 
army in many notes to the International Commission. 

Contrary to the provisions of the Geneva Agree- 
ments, the U. S. imperialists and Diem have been 
using every possible means to carry out measures of 
reprisal against the former members of the Resis- 
tance in the South and to repress the movement for 
unity and peace of the Southern people. They terro- 
rize, and carry out reprisals against those who took 
part in the Resistance movement, even civilians on 
the simple ground that they formerly lived in the 
Resistance bases. They terrorize and repress any who 
stand for peace, who want national reunification. 
They carry out the so-called « communism-denounc- 
ing state policy » and term as communist all those 
who are against their scheme of sabotaging unity. 
They terrorize and massacre the people of the South 
with a view to breaking their fighting spirit. No Viet- 
namese will ever forget the massacres which have 
been committed over these last six years by U. S. 
imperialists and Diem. In January 1955, they 
murdered 47 people at the Vinh Trinh dam, in Duy 
Xuyen. In July 1955, they razed to the ground Tan 
Lap and Tan Hiep, two hamlets in Huong Dien,"mur- 

136 



dering 92 persons among whom were pregnant 
women and many children. Then came the Binh 
Thanh, Ngan Son, Chi Thanh massacres. The 
Southern people's fighting spirit not only has not 
receded but on the contrary has been gaining in 
strength. Frightened by such a powerful fighting 
spirit, the U.S. imperialists and Diem have not 
shrunk from any crime. On U. S. orders, in December 
1958, the Ngo Dinh Diem clique poisoned 1,000 
people out of the 6,000 patriots detained in the Phu 
Loi concentration camp. This was a dastardly crime 
among countless others committed by the blood- 
stained hands of the U. S. imperialist and Diem 
executioners, to oppose the national unity movement 
of the Southern people. 

Recently, to give legal basis to their mass-murders, 
in May, 1959, the U. S. imperialists and Diem 
enacted law 10-59 setting up special military tribu- 
nals with powers to pass and execute death sentences 
on the spot. The guillotine which had been used by 
the French colonialists to murder innumerable Viet- 
namese revolutionary martyrs, the flower of the 
Vietnamese nation, has become a tool for the U. S. 
imperialists and Diem to carry out reprisals against 
the former members of the Resistance. They hope to 
terrorize and repress all those who love peace, stand 
for unity, object to south Viet Nam's becoming a U.S. 
colony, and are against the U.S. — Diem scheme of 
permanently partitioning Viet Nam. Such is the very 
nature of the so-called communism-denouncing state 
policy which the U. S. imperialists and Diem have 
been carrying out in the south of Viet Nam. 

At present, the U. S. imperialists and Diem are 
intensifying their terrorism and repression of the 
Southern people. They have mobilized whole divisions 
of the regular army to carry out raids of terrorism 
everywhere in south Viet Nam. They have sent 
bombers to bomb peaceful hamlets and massacre the 
population, In many of these raids, U.S. military 

137 



advisers directly took part. Ngo Dinh Diem has also 
stated that « South Viet Nam is still in a state of 
war ». The purport of such a statement is that they 
purposely try to create tension in south Viet Nam and 
use it as a pretext to suppress the people's struggle 
for peace and unity and to reject all proposals by the 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
aimed at achieving national unity. 

U. S. goods, most of them surplus goods, have been 
pouring into south Viet Nam under the signboard of 
U. S. aid. They have imported into south Viet Nam 
products that it produces in great quantity such as 
rice, sugar etc. The influx of U. S. goods has given 
rise to an economic recession which is a familiar 
state of things in a colonial country. Native produc- 
tion, unable to stand the competition has been 
collapsing. Light industries in the South — though 
small in number — have been undermined and have 
come to a standstill, due to the competition of U. S. 
goods. Out of the 32,000 weaving looms existing in 
south Viet Nam, not less than 60 per cent have ceased 
functioning. Very influential missions of U. S. polit- 
ical and military advisers have their headquarters 
very close to the President so that they can regularly 
direct Diem to carry out the plot of partitioning Viet 
Nam and turning south Viet Nam into a U. S. colony. 
U.S. imperialism also maintains U. S.O.M., an 
economic mission in Saigon to control Southern 
economy. The monopolizing of the Southern market 
by U. S. goods has disastrously affected the life of the 
Southern workers and other sections of the people. 
Workers have been dismissed, labourers, small 
traders and even national capitalists have gone 
bankrupt. The south of Viet Nam has become a U. S. 
shop-window, as U.S. Senator Maggy recently put it. 

In agriculture, the U. S. imperialists and Diem 
have been pursuing the policy of impoverishing the 
peasant masses. The result of the so-called « agrarian 
reform » is not that the peasants have got land to till, 

138 



but that the masses of them are expropriated from the 
land given them by the Revolution. The landlords 
have the right to keep 100 hectares and their right to 
collect rent is maintained. The first result of the so- 
called agrarian reform is that the peasants become 
more impoverished and their life more and more mi- 
serable under the burden of rent and usury interest. 
The second result is that it has given birth to a new 
class of landlords and it has aggravated the feudal 
exploitation of the Southern peasantry. All through 
these years, agriculture in the South has made not 
the slightest progress. There has been a succession 
of bad harvests and famine. Today, not less than 
900,000 hectares are left uncultivated. Agriculture 
there has been receding in acreage, productivity and 
output. 

Together with the deceitful agrarian reform the 
U. S. imperialists and Diem have been pursuing with 
a sharp sense of urgency their so-called settlers' farms 
state-policy. The U. S. imperialists have granted the 
Diem clique 97,190,000 U.S. dollars and 3,000,000 
Southern piastres to promptly carry out the so-called 
settlers' farm plan. By means of deceit and sheer 
force they have concentrated tens of thousands of 
peasants to clear waste land in remote regions. Their 
action aims at impoverishing the people and laying 
the foundations of U. S. military bases. In 1958 there 
w r ere 45 settlers' farms and in 1959, no less than 84. 
They are located at important strategic points such 
as in Tay Nguyen, and along the Viet Nam — Cam- 
bodian borders. The victims, mostly peasants have 
been forced to leave their native villages to live in 
the heart of the jungle. The U.S. imperialists and 
Diem use troops to raid the villages to levy man- 
power for the 'farms'. By the end of 1959, the number 
of people so levied amounted to over 120,000. They 
have planned to take 1 - 10th of the Southern popula- 
tion for their farms. In September 1958, the Southern 
authorities officially announced that « the settlers 1 

139 



farms are strategic positions to control no man's 
land ». Thus, it is clear that the settlers' farm plan is 
but part and parcel of the whole military scheme of 
the U. S. imperialists in south Viet Nam. 

All these U.S. — Diem activities have plunged the 
Southern people into an unprecedentedly dark and 
dangerous situation and at the same time have 
roused a bitter hatred. 

Under the rule of the U.S. — Diem clique, the 
people lead an utterly miserable life. Whereas the 
living conditions of the Northern people are improv- 
ing day by day, the standard of life in the South is 
getting lower and lower. According to the estimates 
of many Southern papers, by the end of 1959 the 
army of unemployed reached 1,500,000. Whereas in 
the North the dearth of food between harvests has 
been done away with, in the South famine has played 
havoc in the places formerly known as rice granaries. 
Whereas in the North, factories are mush-rooming, in 
the South, due to the competition of U. S. goods, 
various branches of local industries have stopped 
producing, and have thrown out tens of thousands of 
workers. Whereas in the North the people's purchas- 
ing power is rising, in the South it is sharply decreas- 
ing, thereby causing a depression in business. In 
addition to this, taxes are continuously rising. Many 
absurd taxes such as tax on roofs, windows etc., have 
been imposed. The Southern people are now in a 
really precarious situation. 

All this but deepens their seething hatred and in- 
dignation against the U.S. — Diem clique, and 
strengthens their determination to oppose them. 
Throughout these last six years, despite the U. 5. 
imperialists and Diem's terrorism and repression, 
their determination to struggle against the aggressors 
and traitors has been raised to new heights and in 
every possible form. The struggle of the various 
sections of the people has been expanding and 
gaining in strength, 

140 



Leaflets and posters demanding peace and unity 
have appeared everywhere. The people have left no 
stone unterned to display their most cherished aspira- 
tion, the aspiration for peace and unity. Within a week 
a Southern paper received 1,000 communications from 
all walks of life such as workers, peasants, intellec- 
tuals etc., voicing their desire for national unity. In 
the process of this struggle a national front for peace 
and unity is expanding, drawing into its ranks almost 
all sections of the people. Many times crowds of 
people have demonstrated in the»streets to show their 
strength and opposition to the U.S. — Diem plot of 
division. On May 1, 1958, the number of demons- 
trators reached the half million mark. In these huge 
demonstrations, many peace and unity slogans were 
displayed :« Long live peace, down with war», 
« Peaceful national reunification », « Freedom to send 
letters and parcels to the North ». The U. S. imperi- 
alists and Diem have resorted to every means to 
repress the Southern people's strong will to fight for 
peace and unity. The struggle continues, patient, 
enduring and heroic. 

The struggle rose even higher over the U.S. — Diem 
Moody crime at Phu Loi. In Ca Mau and Soc Trang 
90 per cent of the villagers took part in the movement 
of general mourning for the Phu Loi victims. Hundreds 
of people went to the Southern National Assembly 
to question its members. Everywhere in the South, 
meetings and demonstrations took place in protest 
against the murderers, demanding compensations 
for the victims' families and the disbanding of con- 
centration camps, opposing the U.S. — Diem scheme 
of division and demanding national reunification. 

Together with their struggle against the U.S. — Diem 
plot to partition our country and sabotage unity, the 
Southern people have been struggling for their most 
immediate economic interests. Workers' strikes to 
demand cuts in working-hours and increases in 
wages, and improvement of their living conditions 

141 



have occurred. The peasants have been struggling 
against heavy taxes, rent and interest and against 
ill-treatment and oppression. Other sections of the 
people have taken part in the struggle for democratic 
freedoms, against eviction from their homes, against 
heavier taxes, against U. S. 'aid', for freedom of the 
press, for freedom of speech, against conscription and 
against the U.S. — Diem bloody repression. 

The south of Viet Nam belongs to the Vietnamese 
nation. The Southern people are Vietnamese citizens. 
The whole Vietnamese are a unified national commu- 
nity. No U. S. imperialist aggressive scheme, no act 
of treason by the Diem clique, no attempt at territo- 
rial partition, no act of sabotage of national unity 
on their part can obscure this truth and escape 
ultimate defeat. 

In their struggle for national liberation, the Viet- 
namese people have succeeded in liberating the North, 
half of their country. In their struggle for the libera- 
tion of the South, they will certainly be victorious, as 
no power can check the onward march of the w r hole 
Vietnamese nation toward final victory. 



42 






FOR FRIENDSHIP AMONG NATIONS, 
FOR WORLD PEACE 

I. PLACE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 
OF VIET NAM IN THE WORLD ARENA 

Before 1945 it seemed that the name of Viet Nam 
was written off the world. Owing to French colonia- 
lists' propaganda, few people in foreign countries 
knew of the existence of a country called Viet Nam 
in South-east Asia. Nowadays, thanks to the victory 
of the August Revolution, thanks to the heroic struggle 
of the Vietnamese people, thanks to the correct inter- 
nal and external policy of the Democratic Republic 
of Viet Nam, the place of Viet Nam in the interna- 
tional arena has been acknowledged and its position 
raised day after day. 

Immediately after the establishment of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam, the Vietnamese Govern- 
ment clearly stated that on foreign policy, it definiti- 
vely sided with the peaceful, democratic and progres- 
sive forces of the world. As regards other countries, 
it is the eager desire of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam to maintain friendly relations and sincere 
cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual 
assistance in order to build world peace. 

143 



During the terrible years of resistance, the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam did everything to uphold 
its righteous stand before the peoples of the world. 
This explains the support given it by world public 
opinion, especially by the peoples of the socialist 
countries, the peoples of Asia and Africa and the 
French people. 

On January 14, 1950, President Ho Chi Minh 
declared on behalf of the Vietnamese Government : 
« Based on common interests, the Govern- 
ment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
is prepared to establish diplomatic relations 
with any governments which show respect 
for the equality and the national sovereignty 
of Viet Nam with a view to safeguarding 
peace and building democracy in the world. » 
Four days later, on January 18, 1950, the Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of China sent a mes- 
sage to officially recognize the Vietnamese Govern- 
ment. On January 30, 1950, the most powerful socia- 
list country, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
established diplomatic relations with Viet Nam. One 
after another, socialist countries officially recognized 
the Vietnamese Government : the People's Republic 
of Korea, on January 31, 1950, the Republic of 
Czechoslovakia on February 2, 1950 ; the People's 
Republic of Rumania on February 3, 1950; the 
People's Republic of Poland on February 5, 1950 ; the 
People's Republic of Hungary on February 5, 1950; 
the People's Republic of Bulgaria on February 8, 
1950 ; the People's Republic of Albania on February 
13, 1950; the People's Republic of Mongolia on 
November 15, 1954; the Democratic Republic of 
Germany on December 8, 1954. 

That extremely brilliant diplomatic victory has 
contributed much to raise the place of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam in the international arena, Viet 
Nam has officially become a member of the great 
family of world socialism. That was a hard blow on 

144 



the heads of the French aggressors and the imperia- 
list clique. At the same time that historic victory gave 
a fillip to the Vietnamese Resistance, leading it to 
other victories. 

The foreign policy of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam is a policy of peace. In his report to the 
National Assembly at its March, 1955, session, Prime 
Minister Pham Van Dong repeated once again : 

«The foreign policy of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam, which aims at esta- 
blishing good relations with every country 
in the world on the principles of respect for 
each other's national sovereignty, of equality 
and mutual benefit, is in complete harmony 
with the just struggle of the Vietnamese 
people, as well as the peoples the world over, 
for peace, national unity, independence and 
democracy. 

« This policy is based on the principle that 
different social systems can co-exist peace- 
fully, that all international disputes and 
differences be settled through peaceful nego- 
tiations to ease world tension, defend and 
consolidate world peace, and develop friend- 
ship and cooperation among nations. » 
After establishing diplomatic relations with the 
socialist countries, the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam established diplomatic relations with a number 
of Asian and African countries such as : the exchange 
of Consul Generals with the Republic of India, the 
Republic of Indonesia, and most recently the exchange 
of diplomatic relations on ambassadorial level with 
the Republic of Guinea. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam has also established trade relations and Post 
and Telegraph relations with many other countries : 
the United Arab Republic, the Republic of Iraq, 
Japan, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Kingdom of 
Laos... 

10 DIl 145 



The exchange of government delegations and dele- 
gations from mass organizations between Viet Nam 
and other countries have never ceased to develop. In 
the past five years, since the re-establishment of 
peace, there were more than 30 government delega- 
tions from foreign countries visiting Viet Nam and 
many Vietnamese Government delegations visiting 
other countries. In the same period, over 204 Viet- 
namese delegations representing various social strata 
visited other countries and about 90 delegations 
representing various mass organizations of other 
countries came to Viet Nam. 



II. IN THE GREAT FAMILY OF WORLD 
SOCIALISM 

The socialist system stretches from Europe to Asia, 
and the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is an Asian 
member. The world socialist system is the firm sup- 
port on which the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
relies for its advancement. It has been the Vietnamese 
people's view that the existence and development of 
Viet Nam cannot be divorced from the world socialist 
system. The Vietnamese have received immense aid 
from the brotherly countries, above all, the Soviet 
Union and China. At the same time they are actively 
fulfilling their international responsibilities towards 
the socialist system. Relations between the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam and other socialist countries are 
relations based on the principle of equality and mutual 
respect for national sovereignty and on brotherly co- 
operation based on the spirit of proletarian interna- 
tionalism. The Government of the Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam has many times pointed out : « the 
basis of our foreign policy is the unceasing streng- 
thening of the close relations with the brotherly coun- 
tries in the world socialist system headed by the 
Soviet Union ». 

146 



Great assistance was given to Viet Nam during the 
years of resistance by the Soviet Union, China and 
other socialist countries. 

In 1954, the delegations of the Soviet Union and 
China played a key role in the peaceful settlement of 
the Indochinese problems at the Geneva Conference. 
The mighty fighting power and the magnificent suc- 
cesses of the Vietnamese people, especially the Dien 
Bien Phu victory, together with the support given by 
the Soviet Union and China to the stand of the Viet- 
namese Government, crowned the Geneva Conference 
with success. 

Immediately after that, the brotherly countries acti- 
vely helped Viet Nam in the regrouping of its armed 
forces in execution of the Geneva Armistice Agree- 
ment, and especially in the healing of war wounds 
and in economic restoration. Only in recalling the 
distressing economic situation after 15 years of 
destructive wars can one correctly assess the great 
value of the help from the brotherly countries. In 1955, 
the Soviet Government presented to the Government 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam a gift of 400 
million roubles for economic recovery. In the same 
year, the Government of the People's Republic of 
China made a present of 800 million Chinese yuan. 
The other socialist countries also helped Viet Nam 
with warm brotherly affection. The Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam is a garden sweetly smelling of the 
flowers of friendship. On its land, sprang up econo- 
mic, cultural, and social works built with the help of 
brotherly countries. Thousands of talented technicians 
were sent to assist Viet Nam in every field of activity. 
Moved by their noble spirit of proletarian interna- 
tionalism, those comrades have overcome all difficul- 
ties and hardships, given the Vietnamese people a 
helping hand in their national rebuilding. At the same 
time they taught Vietnamese cadres and workers 
valuable experiences and modern techniques to enable 
them to build their own life. The brotherly countries; 

147 



have accepted a great number of Vietnamese students 
and trainees and have given them most favourable 
working conditions. 

Many agreements have been signed with them on 
trade, culture and technical cooperation. The volume 
of trade with these countries has increased tremen- 
dously since 1955. If the 1955 figures are taken as .100, 
the 1959 figures would be 566, i.e. five and a half 
times higher. 

Economic aid from the socialist countries aims at 
helping the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam to 
become quickly self-reliant and stable. Of the 1955-56 
aid from these countries, aid in full equipment 
and other means of production amounted to a high 
percentage: the Soviet Union 74.4 per cent, China 
63 per cent, the Democratic Republic of Germany 82 
per cent, Czechoslovakia 54.3 per cent, Poland 63.5 
per cent. This situation is in sharp contrast with the 
so-called 'aid of the U.S. imperialists' given to south 
Viet Nam. 

There have been more and more Government dele- 
gations and delegations representing various mass 
organizations from Viet Nam and the socialist 
countries visiting one another, to further streng- 
then the friendship and unity of the world socialist 
system. In 1955, the Government delegation of 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam led by 
President Ho Chi Minh visited the Soviet Union, 
China, and Mongolia. In 1957, President Ho Chi 
Minh led another delegation to visit all the 
socialist countries. In 1958 a parliamentary delegation 
led by Mr. Ton Due Thang visited the Republic of 
Czechoslovakia, the Democratic Republic of Germany, 
the People's Republic of Hungary, the People's Repu- 
blic of Bulgaria, the People's Republic of Albania, the 
People's Republic of Poland and the People's Republic 
of Mongolia. Party and Government delegations have 
also attended great anniversary commemorations in 
the brotherly countries: The Fortieth anniversary of 

148 



the Great October Revolution, the Tenth anniversary 
of the Establishment of the People's Republic of 
China, the Tenth anniversary of the Establishment of 
the Democratic Republic of Germany. Many delega- 
tions from various mass organizations, the Press, and 
Arts have visited, performed and organized exhibi- 
tions in those countries, won deeper sympathy from 
the peoples there and provided them with a better 
understanding of the Vietnamese people. 

It was in the same years that many Party and 
Government delegations from the socialist countries 
came to visit the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam : 
the Party and Government delegation of the Soviet 
Union led by President Voroshilov, vice-Premiers 
Mikoyan and Aristov ; the Party and Government 
delegation of China led by Premier Chou En-lai ; the 
Party and Government delegation of the People's 
Republic of Korea led by Premier Kim II Sung; the 
Party and Government delegation of Mongolia led 
by Premier Tsedenbal ; the Party and Government 
delegation of Poland led by Premier Cyrankiewicz ; 
the Party and Government delegation of Hungary 
led by Premier Munnich ; the Party and Government 
delegation of Rumania led by Premier Chivu Stoica ; 
the Party and Government delegation of Czechoslo- 
vakia led by Premier Siroky ; the Party and Govern- 
ment delegation of Bulgaria led by Premier Yugov 
and the Party and Government delegation of Albania 
led by Premier Haxhi Lleshi. Numerous were the 
representatives of the mass organizations, the Press, 
Science, Technique and Arts from the brotherly coun- 
tries who visited Viet Nam and left deep impressions 
and warm sympathy among the Vietnamese people. 
The songs, dances, paintings and sculptures of tlie 
artists have fixed deep in the minds of the Vietnamese 
people, unforgettable memories. 

Neither could the Vietnamese people forget the 
active support from the governments and peoples of 
these countries for the struggle for national reunifica- 

149 



tion of Viet Nam. President N. Khruschov of the 
Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union has many 
times raised the question of Viet Nam's reunification 
and has clearly stated the consistent policy of the 
Soviet Union which stands for a peaceful settlement 
of the reunification of Viet Nam on the basis of the 
Geneva Agreements. In June 1957, on his visit to Viet 
Nam, President Voroshilov said : « The noble and 
just struggle of the Democratic of Viet Nam aiming 
at reunifying the country through peaceful means 
enjoys the support of the broad masses of the people 
of both parts of Viet Nam, because the aim of that 
struggle conforms to the fundamental national inte- 
rests of the Vietnamese people in the North as well 
as in the South. The Soviet people as well as the bro- 
therly Chinese people and all the peoples of other 
socialist countries sincerely wish the Vietnamese 
people success in the realization of their rightful 
aspirations. » 

These words are typical of the attitude of the 
government and peoples of all brotherly countries. 

On Viet Nam's side, while sparing no efforts in the 
building of socialism in the North and in the struggle 
for national reunification, considering it a concrete 
duty of theirs to consolidate the system of world 
socialism, the Vietnamese Government and people 
have taken an active part in the common struggle of 
the socialist countries. The Government of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam has always been resolute 
in supporting the proposals of the Soviet Government 
aimed at easing world tension, particularly the recent 
Soviet proposal at the General Assembly of the United 
Nations on general and complete disarmament, the 
ending of the cold war and the consolidation of world 
peace. It has never ceased to support the struggle of 
the Democratic Republic of Germany for national 
reunification and the signing of a peace treaty with 
Germany. It likewise supports the People's Republic 
of Korea in its struggle for national reunification and 

150 T ' 



for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from south Korea. 
The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam always is with 
the people and Government of the People's Republic 
of China in demanding the U. S. end all interference 
in Taiwan and for the admission of the People's 
Republic of China's to its rightful place in the United 
Nations. It is for the proposals of the Rumanian, 
Bulgarian and Albanian Governments on the setting 
up of a peace area in the Balkans. The Rapacki plan 
aiming at establishing an atom free area in Central 
Europe has also enjoyed its support. The Vietnamese 
Government sympathizes with the Czechoslovak and 
Polish Governments in their efforts to prevent the 
revengeful plots of the West German militarists. In 
1956, when the counter revolutionaries aided by the 
Western imperialists attacked the people's power in 
Hungary, the Vietnamese Government was determined 
in supporting the Soviet Red Army and the Revolu- 
tionary Workers' and Peasants' Government of 
Hungary ; it was happy to see the People's Republic 
of Hungary stand firm in the great socialist family. 
The close friendship between the Vietnamese 
Government and the governments and peoples of the 
socialist countries has been tested with time, and is 
getting firmer and firmer. No force whatever could 
undermine it. To closely cooperate with the countries 
in the socialist system headed by the Soviet Union in 
order to struggle for peace, democracy and world 
socialism, such is the consistent policy of the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Viet Nam. 

III. SUPPORT FOR THE NATIONAL 

INDEPENDENCE OF THE OPPRESSED 

COUNTRIES 

The Vietnamese people have a natural sympathy 
towards the colonial and semi-colonial peoples who 
are struggling for national independence as well as 
towards countries which have just won their indepen- 

151 



dence in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The long 
struggle against French aggression and U. S. inter- 
vention is not only a glorious page of history of the 
Vietnamese people but also of the national liberation 
movement of the whole world. The great historic Dien 
Bien Phu victory is the common victory of the oppres- 
sed people. President Sekou Toure of Guinea, 
has said : 

«We may say that the French colonialist 
system was broken thanks to the heroic 
struggle of the Vietnamese people, to the 
endurance, clearsightedness and the spirit of 
sacrifice of the leaders of the Vietnamese 
people, especially of President Ho Chi Minh, 
who is known and respected by all the peoples 
of Africa. President Ho Chi Minh has contri- 
buted an important part in giving a fillip to 
the national liberation movement of great 
historical significance to the colonial 
peoples. » 

In 1955, the Vietnamese Government delegation led 
by Premier Pham Van Dong attended the Bandung 
Conference and supported the ten principles proclaim- 
ed by that conference aiming at fighting against world 
colonialism and at realizing peaceful co-existence 
among nations with differing political and systems. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam has been consistent in its policy and fully 
support the movement of struggle against colonialism 
no matter where and when or under whatever form. 
The Vietnamese people support the views of the 
Government of the Republic of Indonesia on the libe- 
ration of West Irian from the Dutch colonial yoke. 
During his visit to Indonesia, President Ho Chi Minh 
said : «... I have said time and again that the Vietnam- 
ese people give 100 per cent support to the policy 
of Indonesia for the liberation of West Irian. The 
colonialists have no right to retain it. » The Vietnam- 
ese people also lent their support to the struggle of 

152 



the Indian people for the liberation of Goa. They fully 
support the resistance movement of the Algerian 
people against French colonialism. The Government 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is among the 
first to recognize the Provisional Government of 
Algeria. The Vietnamese people have welcomed most 
warmheartedly and with deep fraternal affection the 
military delegation and the Provisional Government 
delegation of Algeria in their visit to Viet Nam. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam has warmly supported the struggle of the peoples 
of Liban, Jordan, Iraq and the United Arab Republic 
against the U. S., British and French aggression, for 
the defence of national independence. The Vietnamese 
people greatly rejoice at the success of the Egyptian 
people in defeating British and French colonialists' 
aggression. They are particularly gratified at the 
great victory of the Iraqi revolution. Efforts have been 
made to establish friendly relations and cooperation 
with the United Arab Republic as well as with the 
newly established Republic of Iraq. 

As regards the newly independent countries in 
Africa : Guinea, Ghana, Morocco, Tunisia, the Viet- 
namese people support them in their struggle to safe- 
guard their independence and wish to develop friendly 
relations with them. 

The successful development of the Cuban revolu- 
tion has been closely followed and actively supported 
by the Vietnamese Government and people. 

With regard to its two closest neigbours, Cambodia 
and Laos, the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
always supports the struggle of these peoples fighting 
against foreign aggression. The Resistance War of 
the Vietnamese people against the French colonialists 
started at the same time as the resistance of the 
Cambodian and Laotian peoples. There was close 
cooperation between the resistance of the three coun- 
tries and finally in 1954 common victory was won. 
Peace was re-established in the whole of Indo-China. 

153 



the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of 
the three countries were recognized by the Geneva 
Agreements. 

Since then, the Vietnamese people have been cons- 
tantly supporting the policy of peace and neutrality 
of Cambodia led by Prince Sihanouk of not adhering 
to any military bloc. The Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam has established with Cambodia cultural and 
economic exchanges of mutual benefit. 

As regards the Kingdon of Laos, the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam has been consistent in its desire 
to maintain good neighbourly relations based on the 
five principles of peaceful co-existence. The Vietnam- 
ese people always support the struggle of the people 
of that country for peace, neutrality, unity and nation- 
al concord. They are at the same time determined 
to oppose the interference of U. S. imperialism aimed 
at turning Laos into its military base and colony, 
sabotaging peace in Indo-China. 

The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam on its part, 
enjoys the sympathy and support from the peoples of 
the oppressed countries and of the newly independent 
countries. The Governments and people of India, 
Burma, Indonesia, and many other countries showed 
great sympathy to the Vietnamese Government and 
people during their Resistance War against the 
French colonialists and the U. S. interventionists. In 
the peaceful settlement of the Indochinese question, 
these countries played an important role. At present, 
in their struggle for national reunification, the people 
and Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam enjoy the support of the peoples and govern- 
ments of those countries. India is now the Chairman 
of the International Commission for Supervision and 
Control of the implementation of the Geneva Agree- 
ments in Viet Nam, Cambodia and Laos. 

The Asian and African peoples Congress, meeting 
in January, 1958, in Cairo took this decision on behalf 
of 45 Asian and African countries :« The Geneva 



154 



Agreements on Viet Nam must be fully carried out ; 
imperialist interference in south Viet Nam must be 
put an end to ; the consultative conference between 
the authorities of the North and South must be held to 
discuss on nation-wide, free general elections, to 
realize the reunification of the country as provided 
for by the Geneva Agrements." 

The Vietnamese people heartily welcome and thank 
for such active support from Asian and African 
countries. 

In the years following the re-establishment of 
peace, friendly relations between Viet Nam and Asian 
and African countries have been further strengthened. 
There have been more and more mutual visits by dele- 
gations from Viet Nam and Asian and African coun- 
tries. President Ho Chi Minh visited India and 
Burma in February 1958 and Indonesia in February 
1959. Indian Prime Minister Nehru, Burmese Prime 
Minister U Nu, Indian President Prasad and Vice- 
President Radakhrisnan, have one after another, 
visited Viet Nam. President Sukarno visited Viet 
Nam in June 1959. There have been exchanges of 
Government, cultural and economic delegations 
between Viet Nam and Asian and African countries: 
India, Indonesia, the United Arab Republic, Iraq, etc. 

True to the spirit of the Bandung conference, the 
Government of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam 
has been supporting and will always support the 
world national liberation movement and highly 
values the friendship and cooperation among Asian 
and African countries. The Vietnamese people will 
always be in the front rank of the battle against world 
colonialfsm until the day when ignoble colonialism is 
completely erased from the earth. 

IV. RESOLUTE IN SAFEGUARDING PEACE 

Since time immemorial the Vietnamese people have 
been a peace-loving people. The war has brought 
them untold sacrifices and destruction. , 

155 



Right from the inception of the Democratic Repu- 
blic of Viet Nam, the Government carried out a policy 
of peace. In the years 1945-1946, when the French 
colonialists again invaded Viet Nam, sowing frightful 
afflictions, the Vietnamese people were compelled to 
take to arms for self-defence, while never ceasing to 
express the desire to negotiate with the French 
Government for a peaceful solution. They made con- 
cessions in the interests of peace. However the more 
concessions they made, the higher French demands 
became, infringing upon the national sovereignty of 
the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. The Viet- 
namese Government and people could not go on 
making concessions for this would have meant capi- 
tulation. It was in such circumstances that the entire 
people rose up and fought. 

In July 1954, peace was re-established in Viet Nam. 
Since then, in the struggle for national re-unification, 
the people and Government of the Democratic 
Republic of Viet Nam have never ceased to hold high 
the banner of peace. Their consistent policy is : to 
achieve national re-unification through peaceful 
means on the basis of independence and democracy 
as provided for by the Geneva Agreements. The Go- 
vernment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is 
always ready to meet the south Viet Nam authorities 
to discuss with them on all problems relating to na- 
tional re-unification in the spirit of understanding 
and mutual concession. 

While fighting to safeguard the independence of its 
country, the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is 
sparing no efforts in contributing to the defence of 
world peace. In 1950, despite the difficulties of the 
war, five million signatures supporting the Stockholm 
Appeal for the ban on the atom bombs were collected. 
On the Berlin Declaration's Appeal for a peace treaty 
among the great powers, more than ten million signa- 
tures were collected. The Vietnamese have expressed 
their determination in the fight against the U. S. 

156 



imperialists' and their hirelings* aggression on the 
People's Republic of Korea, aiming at launching a 
new world war. They were active in supporting the 
Korean people and the Chinese volunteers in their 
fight against the aggressive U. S. imperialists and 
their clique. 

With a view to easing world tension the Viet- 
namese Government and people have actively con- 
tributed to the struggle against the cold war policy of 
the warmongering imperialists with the U. S. im- 
perialists at their head. In 1955, six million people in 
north Viet Nam supported the appeal for the complete 
ban on atomic weapons. 

The Government of the Democratic Republic of 
Viet Nam is determined to oppose the setting up of 
aggressive military blocs and consider them the direct 
instigators of war. With regard to the aggressive 
S.E.A. T. O. bloc, it has always exposed the serious 
danger caused by that bloc to peace in the whole of 
this area and in the world. 

It is resolute in supporting the struggle of the 
peoples of Europe against the rebirth of West 
German militarism and against the rearmament of 
West Germany. It views that struggle as having 
particular importance on the peaceful settlement of 
the German question. This was the reason for its 
warm approval of and support given to the Soviet 
proposal for the signing of a peace treaty between the 
Soviet Union, France, U. K. and the U. S. with 
Germany and for turning West Berlin into a free city. 
It fully sympathizes with the Japanese people against 
the U.S. — Japanese Security Pact and opposes the 
restoration of Japanese militarism. 

In 1958, when the flames of war from the Middle 
East menaced the people of the world, the Govern- 
ment and people of the Democratic Republic of Viet 
Nam displayed an attitude of most resolute struggle 

157 



together with the socialist camp and the peace-loving 
peoples the world over for the extinguishing of those 
flames. 

Recently, with the serious intervention of the U.S. 
imperialists in Laos and the breaking out of the 
Laotian civil war, bringing grave dangers which 
could lead to a war in Indo-China, the Vietnamese 
Government and people timely raised their voices to 
denounce and prevent the mad acts of the U. S. 
imperialists and their underlings to rekindle the 
flames of war in this area. 

In the struggle for national independence and for 
world peace, the Vietnamese people were shown 
profound understanding and enjoyed active support 
from hundreds of millions of peace-loving peoples the 
world over. It is extremely moving to recall the 
sympathy of the World Peace Council, of the progres- 
sive forces of the world to the Vietnamese people's 
struggle against aggression. How could they forget 
that memorable day, the « Day of Solidarity with the 
heroic Vietnamese people and of struggle for the end 
of the war in Viet Nam » organized on December 19, 
1953 on the decision of the Third Congress of the 
World Federation of Trade Unions representing more 
than 88 million workers from 79 countries ? How 
could they forget the immense movement for the re- 
establisment of peace in Indo-China before and during 
the 1954 Geneva Conference organized by the World 
Peace Movement ? Every Vietnamese is grateful to 
the heroic French people who, on many occasions, 
struggled most resolutely for the end of the war in 
Viet Nam. The names of Henri Martin, Raymonde 
Dien will be long remembered by the Vietnamese 
people. 

While the Vietnamese people are struggling for the 
peaceful reunification of Viet Nam, numerous are the 
words of sympathy ringing throughout the five conti- 
nents : the voice of the World Peace Council, of the 
International Congresses, of the 1957 Cangress for 

158 



Asian-African Solidarity, and particularly of the 1959 
Congress at Stockholm for the reduction of armament 
and for international cooperation. The Vietnamese 
people are filled with great pride and emotion at the 
noble award given by the World Peace Council to the 
Saigon-Cholon Peace Movement and the posthumous 
award given to the glorious fighter for peace : Nguyen 
Van Duong. They feel greatly honoured and over- 
joyed at having such an outstanding veteran peace- 
fighter as Mr. Ton Due Thang, the Lenin prize winner 
of 1957. The warm attention of the peace forces in the 
world has been a source of great encouragement to 
them in their struggle for the achievement of a peace- 
ful, united, independent, democratic, rich and pros- 
perous Viet Nam. 

In the present world situation, the Vietnamese 
people never cease to heighten their vigilance, 
determined to struggle against the plots for war 
preparation by the reactionary imperialists with the 
U. S. imperialists at the head, and to maintain and 
consolidate world peace. 



159 



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FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE 
HANOI— 1960